Primary cell

primary batteryprimaryprimary batteriesdisposabledisposable batteriesDisposable batterynon-rechargeable batteriesprimary (non-rechargeable) electrochemical cellsPrimary cell terminologyzinc-acid batteries
A primary cell is a battery (a galvanic cell) that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).wikipedia
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Electric battery

batterybatteriesBattery (electricity)
A primary cell is a battery (a galvanic cell) that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge.

Flashlight

torchtorchespenlight
Primary cells are made in a range of standard sizes to power small household appliances such as flashlights and portable radios.
Today, flashlights use mostly incandescent lamps or light-emitting diodes and run on disposable or rechargeable batteries.

Alkaline battery

alkaline batteriesalkalinealkaline cell
Along with Rayovac, these three are trying to move consumers from zinc-carbon to more expensive, long-lasting and safer alkaline batteries.
An alkaline battery (IEC code: L) is a type of primary battery which derives its energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganese dioxide.

Rechargeable battery

rechargeablerechargeable batteriesstorage batteries
A primary cell is a battery (a galvanic cell) that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery). In contrast, in a secondary cell, the reaction can be reversed by running a current into the cell with a battery charger to recharge it, regenerating the chemical reactants.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.

Reserve battery

Reserve batteries
Reserve batteries achieve very long storage time (on the order of 10 years or more) without loss of capacity, by physically separating the components of the battery and only assembling them at the time of use.
A reserve battery, also called stand-by battery, is a primary battery where part is isolated until the battery needs to be used.

Zinc–carbon battery

zinc-carbon batteryzinc-carbon batterieszinc-carbon
Along with Rayovac, these three are trying to move consumers from zinc-carbon to more expensive, long-lasting and safer alkaline batteries. Manganese dioxide is used in the Leclanché cell and zinc–carbon cell, and nitric acid is used in the Bunsen cell and Grove cell.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.

Bunsen cell

Manganese dioxide is used in the Leclanché cell and zinc–carbon cell, and nitric acid is used in the Bunsen cell and Grove cell.
The Bunsen cell is a zinc-carbon primary cell (colloquially called a "battery") composed of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid separated by a porous pot from a carbon cathode in nitric or chromic acid.

Grove cell

GroveGrove's batteries
Manganese dioxide is used in the Leclanché cell and zinc–carbon cell, and nitric acid is used in the Bunsen cell and Grove cell.
The Grove cell was an early electric primary cell named after its inventor, Welsh physical scientist William Robert Grove, and consisted of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid and a platinum cathode in concentrated nitric acid, the two separated by a porous ceramic pot.

Silver-oxide battery

silver-zinc batteriessilver cell batteriessilver-oxide batteries
Electrochemical depolarization exchanges the hydrogen for a metal, such as copper (e.g. Daniell cell), or silver (e.g. silver-oxide cell), so called.
A silver-oxide battery (IEC code: S) is a primary cell with a very high energy-to-weight ratio.

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
The battery terminal (electrode) that develops a positive voltage polarity (the carbon electrode in a dry cell) is called the cathode and the electrode with a negative polarity (zinc in a dry cell) is called the anode.
A primary cell is a special type of electrochemical cell in which the reaction cannot be reversed, and the identities of the anode and cathode are therefore fixed.

Rechargeable alkaline battery

Recharging alkaline batteriesrechargeable alkaline batteriesRechargeable alkaline
Attempts to extend the life of primary cells, for example by recharging alkaline batteries, meet with variable results.
Their capacity is about 2/3 that of primary cells.

Battery nomenclature

IEC 60086(IEC code: C)(IEC code: L)
Three different technical committees of IEC make standards on batteries: TC21(lead-acid), SC21(other secondary) and TC35(primary).

Daniell cell

batteryDaniel batteryDaniel-Jakobi cell
Electrochemical depolarization exchanges the hydrogen for a metal, such as copper (e.g. Daniell cell), or silver (e.g. silver-oxide cell), so called.

Anode

anodicanodes(anode)
The battery terminal (electrode) that develops a positive voltage polarity (the carbon electrode in a dry cell) is called the cathode and the electrode with a negative polarity (zinc in a dry cell) is called the anode.

Galvanic cell

voltaic cellgalvaniccells
A primary cell is a battery (a galvanic cell) that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).

Electrochemistry

electrochemicalelectrochemistelectrochemical reaction
In general, the electrochemical reaction occurring in the cell is not reversible, rendering the cell unrechargeable.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
In general, the electrochemical reaction occurring in the cell is not reversible, rendering the cell unrechargeable.

Battery charger

chargerchargingbattery charging
In contrast, in a secondary cell, the reaction can be reversed by running a current into the cell with a battery charger to recharge it, regenerating the chemical reactants.

Heavy metals

heavy metalheavy elementsheavy element
Due to the toxic heavy metals and strong acids they contain, batteries are hazardous waste.

Hazardous waste

Hazardous Wasteshazardoushazardous materials
Due to the toxic heavy metals and strong acids they contain, batteries are hazardous waste.

Wireless

wireless communicationwireless communicationswireless internet
Due mainly to increasing sales of wireless devices and cordless tools which cannot be economically powered by primary batteries and come with integral rechargeable batteries, the secondary battery industry has high growth and has slowly been replacing the primary battery in high end products.

Cordless

cordless toolscordless electric
Due mainly to increasing sales of wireless devices and cordless tools which cannot be economically powered by primary batteries and come with integral rechargeable batteries, the secondary battery industry has high growth and has slowly been replacing the primary battery in high end products.

Incandescent light bulb

incandescent lampfilamentincandescent light
Flashlight power demands were reduced by the switch from incandescent bulbs to light-emitting diodes.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
Flashlight power demands were reduced by the switch from incandescent bulbs to light-emitting diodes.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
This means that hydrogen accumulates at the cathode and reduces the effectiveness of the cell.