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School

schoolsschoolingnight school
A primary school, junior school (in UK), elementary school or grade school (in US & Canada) is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education.
The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education.

School corporal punishment

corporal punishmentcorporal punishment in schoolscaned
He recommended that teachers should motivate their pupils by making the teaching interesting, rather than by corporal punishment.
Less commonly, it could also include spanking or smacking the student with the open hand, especially at the primary school and junior secondary school levels.

Secondary school

high schoolsecondaryhigh schools
Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.
Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and prepare for vocational or tertiary education.

Ludus (ancient Rome)

ludusliterary gameludi
In Rome the primary school was called the ludus; the curriculum developed over the centuries featuring the learning of both Latin and Greek.
An elementary or primary school or the school of the “litterator" attended by boys and girls up to the age of 11 was a ludus. Ludi were to be found throughout the city, and were run by a ludi magister (schoolmaster) who was often an educated slave or freedman. School started around six o'clock each morning and finished just after midday. Students were taught math, reading, writing, poetry, geometry and sometimes rhetoric.

Cathedral school

cathedral schoolscathedral song schoolsChoir School
As the Roman influence waned the great cathedral schools were established to provide a source of choristers and clergy.
Cathedral schools at this time were primarily run by a group of ministers and divided into two parts: Schola minor which was intended for younger students would later become elementary schools.

Elementary school (England and Wales)

elementary schoolPublic Elementary Schoolelementary schools
Many of these schools converted to Primary schools after 1944.

Christian school

Christianchurch schoolChurch of England school
The United Kingdom allowed most elementary education to be delivered in church schools whereas in France this was illegal as there is strict separation of church and state.
, there were 6,841 elementary and secondary schools enrolling about 2.2 million students.

Dame school

dame schoolsdame's schooldame
A dame school was an early form of a private elementary school in English-speaking countries.

Educational stage

gradesgradegrade level
In the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau), the years are organized in three stages and renumbered within each stage: 6 years in elementary school years 1 to 6, then 3 years in lower secondary (初级中学, abbreviated 初中) years 7 to 9, then 3 years in higher secondary (高级中学, abbreviated 高中) years 1 to 3.

Vocal school

Blab schoolone-room schoolhouse
A vocal school, blab school or ABC school or old-time school was a type of children's primary school at some remote rural places in North America, outdated and obsolete as the 19th century progressed.

Elementary school (United States)

elementary schoolelementaryelementary schools
Basic subjects are taught in elementary school, and students often remain in one classroom throughout the school day (until starting different blocks), except for physical education, library, music, and art classes.

Kindergarten

KYear Kkindergartens
In some parts of the United States, "primary school" refers to a school covering kindergarten through to second grade or third grade (K through 2 or 3); the "elementary school" includes grade three through five or grades four to six.
The child will usually attend kindergarten for two years, before proceeding to primary school at age 7.

Elementary Education Act 1870

Education Act 18701870 Education ActEducation Act
The Boards could make grants to existing Church Schools (this had been happening since the 1830s) and erect their own board schools or elementary schools.

Primary education

primaryelementary educationelementary
A primary school, junior school (in UK), elementary school or grade school (in US & Canada) is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education.

Preschool

pre-schoolnursery schoolnursery
Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.

International Standard Classification of Education

ISCEDISCED Level 22011 version
The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education as a single phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning.

Agoge

agōgēraised to fightSparta
In Sparta until twelve, it would be at a military academy building up physical fitness and combat skills, but also reading, writing and arithmetic while in Athens the emphasis would be on understanding the laws of the polis, reading, writing, arithmetic and music with gymnastics and athletics, and learning the moral stories of Homer.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
In Sparta until twelve, it would be at a military academy building up physical fitness and combat skills, but also reading, writing and arithmetic while in Athens the emphasis would be on understanding the laws of the polis, reading, writing, arithmetic and music with gymnastics and athletics, and learning the moral stories of Homer.

Polis

poleiscity-statescity-state
In Sparta until twelve, it would be at a military academy building up physical fitness and combat skills, but also reading, writing and arithmetic while in Athens the emphasis would be on understanding the laws of the polis, reading, writing, arithmetic and music with gymnastics and athletics, and learning the moral stories of Homer.

Quintilian

QuintillianMarcus Fabius QuintilianusQuinctilian
In AD 94, Quintilian published the systematic educational work, Institutio oratoria.

Trivium

Trivium (education)classical liberal arts curriculumclassical trivium
The trivium (grammar, rhetoric and logic) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) were legacies of the Roman curriculum.

Quadrivium

quadriviamathematicsquadrivial
The trivium (grammar, rhetoric and logic) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) were legacies of the Roman curriculum.

Choir

choralchoruschoral music
As the Roman influence waned the great cathedral schools were established to provide a source of choristers and clergy.

The King's School, Canterbury

King's School, CanterburyThe King's SchoolKing's School
Kings School, Canterbury dates from 597.

Council of Rome

Rome382 a synod in RomeCouncils of Rome
The Council of Rome in 853 specified that each parish should provide elementary education: religious ritual but also reading and writing Latin.