# Prime (symbol)

**prime symbolprimeprime mark′double prime″double prime symbolfoot symbolfourthprime notation**

The prime symbol, double prime symbol (″), triple prime symbol (‴), quadruple prime symbol (⁗) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music.wikipedia

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### Foot (unit)

**feetftfoot**

The prime symbol is commonly used to represent feet (ft) and arcminutes (arcmin).

The foot ( pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement.

### Apostrophe

**apostrophespossessive apostrophe’**

Although similar in appearance, the prime symbol should not be confused with the apostrophe (’ or '), single quotation mark (' or ‘ or ’), acute accent, or grave accent ; the double prime symbol should not be confused with the double quotation mark (“…” or "…"), the ditto mark (”), or the letter double apostrophe .

(When it functions as a closing quotation mark, it is always paired with an opening quotation mark.) The apostrophe also looks similar to, but is not the same as, the prime symbol, which is used to indicate measurement in feet or arcminutes, as well as for various mathematical purposes, and the ʻokina, which represents a glottal stop in Polynesian languages.

### Inch

**ininchesinternational inch**

The double prime represents inches (in) and arcseconds (arcsec).

The inch (abbreviation: in or ″) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement.

### Quotation mark

**quotation marksdouble quotes**

Although similar in appearance, the prime symbol should not be confused with the apostrophe (’ or '), single quotation mark (' or ‘ or ’), acute accent, or grave accent ; the double prime symbol should not be confused with the double quotation mark (“…” or "…"), the ditto mark (”), or the letter double apostrophe .

The closing single quotation mark is identical or similar in form (depending on the font) to the apostrophe and similar to the prime symbol.

### Minute and second of arc

**masarcsecondarc second**

The prime symbol is commonly used to represent feet (ft) and arcminutes (arcmin). The double prime represents inches (in) and arcseconds (arcsec). As an angular measurement, 3° 5′ 30″ means 3 degrees, 5 arcminutes and 30 arcseconds.

The standard symbol for marking the arcminute is the prime (U+2032), though a single quote (U+0027) is commonly used where only ASCII characters are permitted.

### Ligne

**ligneslinesParis line**

The triple prime (‴) in watchmaking represents a ligne or 1/12 of an inch.

The standardized conversion for a ligne is 2.2558291 mm (1 mm = 0.443296 ligne), and it is abbreviated with the letter L or represented by the triple prime, ‴.

### Minute

**minmmins.**

The SI symbols for minute or minutes are min for time measurement, and the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5′, for angle measurement.

### X-bar theory

**X-bar schemaX-barX-bar framework**

Originally, X-bar theory used a bar over syntactic units to indicate bar-levels in syntactic structure, generally rendered as an overbar.

Because this may be difficult to typeset, this is often written as X′, using the prime symbol or with superscript numerals as exponents, e.g., X 1 . In English, however, this is still read as "X bar".

### Degree (angle)

**°degreesdegree**

As an angular measurement, 3° 5′ 30″ means 3 degrees, 5 arcminutes and 30 arcseconds.

These subdivisions, also called the arcminute and arcsecond, are respectively represented by a single and double prime.

### Derivative

**differentiationdifferentiablefirst derivative**

A derivative or differentiated function: f′(x) and f″(x) are the first and second derivatives of f(x) with respect to x. Likewise are f‴(x) and f⁗(x) . Similarly, if y = f(x) then y′ and y″ are the first and second derivatives of y with respect to x. (Other notation exists)

Sometimes referred to as prime notation, one of the most common modern notation for differentiation is due to Joseph-Louis Lagrange and uses the prime mark, so that the derivative of a function f is denoted f'. Similarly, the second and third derivatives are denoted

### Helmholtz pitch notation

**HelmholtzAA-f 3 AAA–c′′′′′**

The prime symbol is used in combination with lower case letters in the Helmholtz pitch notation system to distinguish notes in different octaves from middle C upwards.

Developed by the German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz, it uses a combination of upper and lower case letters (A to G), and the sub- and super-prime symbols to describe each individual note of the scale.

### Rubik's Cube

**3x3x3Rubik's Cubesrubix cube**

In Rubik's Cube move notation the prime is used to invert moves or move sequences (e.g., L means "turn the left face 90 degrees clockwise", whereas L′ means "turn the left face 90 degrees counter-clockwise").

When a prime symbol follows a letter, it denotes an anticlockwise face turn; while a letter without a prime symbol denotes a clockwise turn.

### Typewriter

**typewriterselectric typewritertypewritten**

* Typewriter conventions

Other examples of typewriter practices that are sometimes still used in desktop publishing systems include inserting a double space at the end of a sentence, and the use of straight quotes (or "dumb quotes") as quotation marks and prime marks.

### Overline

**overbarbarcombining overline**

Originally, X-bar theory used a bar over syntactic units to indicate bar-levels in syntactic structure, generally rendered as an overbar.

Due to difficulty in typesetting the overbar, the prime symbol is often used instead, as in X′. Contemporary typesetting software, such as LaTeX, has made typesetting overbars considerably simpler; both prime and overbar markers are accepted usages.

### Soft sign

**ЬЬ ьsoft**

Prime and double prime are used to transliterate Cyrillic yeri (the soft sign, ь) and yer (the hard sign, ъ).

In the romanization of Cyrillic words, soft signs are typically replaced with the prime symbol ′.

### List of XML and HTML character entity references

**character entity referenceHTML entitycharacter entity**

### Stress (linguistics)

**stressstressedunstressed**

The "modifier letter prime" and "modifier letter double prime" characters are intended for linguistic purposes, such as the indication of stress or the transliteration of certain Cyrillic characters.

In English dictionaries that show pronunciation by respelling, stress is typically marked with a prime mark placed after the stressed syllable: /si-lab′-ə-fi-kay′-shən/.

### Dot (diacritic)

**dotoverdotdot above**

However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation.

### Quotation marks in English

**smart quotesinside or outsidelogical (as opposed to typesetter's) punctuation**

The typographic closing double quotation mark and the neutral double quotation mark are similar to—and sometimes used to represent—the ditto mark and the double prime symbol.

### Street Fighter

**HadoukenStreet Fighter'' seriesshoryuken**

The first official update to the series was Street Fighter II': Champion Edition, pronounced Street Fighter II Dash in Japan, as noted by the prime notation on the logo.

### Tangential angle

**polar tangential angle**

Here, the prime symbol denotes the derivative with respect to.

### Degree symbol

**°degreedegree sign**

where the usage seems to show that the symbol is a small raised zero, to match the prime symbol notation of sexagesimal subdivisions of degree such as minute, second, and third, which originate as small raised Roman numerals.

### Guide number

**GN**

To serve the U.S. market, manufacturers of flash devices typically provide foot-based guide numbers and add nomenclature such as feet, ft, or the foot symbol ( ′ ) to unambiguously denote that fact, e.g. Guide number: 92′. Another common practice when flash devices are marketed in the U.S. is to provide two guide numbers—which can be expressed in a variety of formats—so distances and fnumbers may be calculated using either feet or meters, e.g.

### Notation for differentiation

**Dot notationfluxionsLagrange's notation**

In Lagrange's notation, a prime mark denotes a derivative.

### Optimal solutions for Rubik's Cube

**can be solved in 20 movesKociembaKociemba’s 2 phase algorithm**

A counterclockwise quarter turn is indicated by appending a prime symbol .