Prime Minister of Canada

Prime MinisterCanadian Prime MinisterPrime MinistersCanadian Prime MinistersCanadaPrime Ministers of CanadaCanadianDominion of Canadaformer Prime Minister12th Prime Minister
The prime minister of Canada (premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government.wikipedia
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Cabinet of Canada

CabinetCanadian Cabinetfederal cabinet
The prime minister of Canada (premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government.
Chaired by the prime minister, the Cabinet is a committee of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and the senior echelon of the Ministry, the membership of the Cabinet and ministry often being co-terminal; there are no members of the latter who are not also members of the former.

Justin Trudeau

J. TrudeauTrudeauJustin
The current, and 23rd, prime minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2019 Canadian federal election.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician who has served as the 23rd prime minister of Canada since 2015 and has been the leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.

List of prime ministers of Canada

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of CanadaPrime Ministers of Canada
The current, and 23rd, prime minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2019 Canadian federal election.
The Prime Minister of Canada is an official who serves as the primary minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and thus head of government of Canada.

2019 Canadian federal election

2019 federal election2019 election2019
The current, and 23rd, prime minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2019 Canadian federal election.
The Liberal Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, won 157 seats to form a minority government and lost the majority they had won in the 2015 election.

Governor General of Canada

Governor GeneralGovernor-General of CanadaGovernor-General
The Cabinet and the prime minister also appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and other federal courts, and the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, and selects the governor general of Canada.
The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of constitutional and ceremonial duties.

Senate of Canada

SenatorSenateCanadian Senator
The Cabinet and the prime minister also appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and other federal courts, and the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, and selects the governor general of Canada. Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate.
The Senate is modelled after the British House of Lords and consists of 105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister.

Parliament of Canada

ParliamentCanadian ParliamentMP
The two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Governor General summons and appoints the 105 senators on the advice of the Prime Minister, while the 338 members of the House of Commons—called members of Parliament (MPs)—each represent an electoral district, commonly referred to as a riding, and are directly elected by Canadian voters.

Office of the Prime Minister (Canada)

Prime Minister's OfficeOffice of the Prime MinisterOffice of the Prime Minister of Canada
The prime minister of Canada is in charge of the Prime Minister's Office.
It is made up of the prime minister and their top political staff, who are charged with advising the prime minister on decisions, making the office a wholly partisan body.

Supreme Court of Canada

Supreme CourtCanadian Supreme CourtSupreme Court Justice
The Cabinet and the prime minister also appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and other federal courts, and the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, and selects the governor general of Canada.
Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court.

Head of government

heads of governmentgovernmentchief executive
The prime minister of Canada (premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government.

John Abbott

Sir John AbbottJohn Joseph Caldwell AbbottAbbott
Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate.
Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, (March 12, 1821 – October 30, 1893) was a Canadian lawyer and politician, Freemason, who served as the third prime minister of Canada (and its first native-born one – both MacDonald and Mackenzie having been born in Scotland), in office from 1891 to 1892.

John A. Macdonald

Sir John A. MacdonaldJohn Alexander MacdonaldMacdonald
Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894.
Sir John Alexander Macdonald (11 January 1815 – 6 June 1891) was the first prime minister of Canada (1867–1873, 1878–1891).

Mackenzie Bowell

Sir Mackenzie BowellBowellHarriet Bowell
Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate.
Sir Mackenzie Bowell (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was a Canadian newspaper publisher and politician, who served as the fifth prime minister of Canada, in office from 1894 to 1896.

Government of Canada

Canadian governmentfederal governmentfederal
The two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister (currently Justin Trudeau), who is appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons.

John Sparrow David Thompson

John ThompsonSir John ThompsonThompson
Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894.
Sir John Sparrow David Thompson (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer, judge, and politician who served as the fourth prime minister of Canada, in office from 1892 until his death.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election (that his party won), briefly "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later.
He served as the tenth prime minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930 and 1935–1948.

House of Commons of Canada

House of CommonsMPMember of Parliament
Not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention (originating in Canada's former colonial power, the United Kingdom) that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.
The prime minister stays in office only so long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.

John Turner

TurnerRt. Hon John N. TurnerTURNER, John Napier
Similarly, John Turner replaced Pierre Trudeau as leader of the Liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the House of Commons; Turner won a riding in the next election but the Liberal Party was swept from power.
John Napier Wyndham Turner (born June 7, 1929) is a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 17th prime minister of Canada in 1984.

Pierre Trudeau

Pierre Elliot TrudeauTrudeauPierre Elliott Trudeau
Similarly, John Turner replaced Pierre Trudeau as leader of the Liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the House of Commons; Turner won a riding in the next election but the Liberal Party was swept from power.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (, ; October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), mostly referred to as simply Pierre Trudeau, or by the initials PET, was a Canadian politician who was 15th prime minister of Canada and leader of the Liberal Party, between 1968 and 1984, with a brief period as Leader of the Opposition, from 1979 to 1980.

Monarchy of Canada

Queen of CanadaCanadian monarchCanadian Royal Family
Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is actually vested in the monarch of Canada, but in practice the monarch (who is the head of state) or her representative, the governor general of Canada, approves them routinely, and their role is largely ceremonial, and their powers are only exercised under the advice of the prime minister.
The Manual of Official Procedure of the Government of Canada states the prime minister is responsible for convening parliament, tabling a resolution of loyalty and condolence from parliament to the new monarch, and arranging for the motion to be seconded by the Leader of the Official Opposition.

Member of parliament

MPMemberMembers of Parliament
While there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat very promptly.
Members of Parliament are elected, while senators are appointed by the governor general on behalf of the sovereign at the direction of the Prime Minister of Canada.

The Right Honourable

The Rt Hon.The Rt. Hon.Right Honourable
Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable (Le Très Honorable), a privilege maintained for life.

Representative of the Government in the Senate

Leader of the Government in the SenateLeader of the Government in the Canadian SenateGovernment Leader in the Senate
Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894.
On November 29, 2019, the Prime Minister's office announced that Senator Harder would be stepping down from his position as Representative of the Government in the Senate effective December 31, 2019.

Constitution Act, 1982

Constitution Act 1982Constitution Act of 1982Constitution Act
The position of prime minister is not outlined in any Canadian constitutional document and is mentioned only in passing in the Constitution Act, 1982, and the Letters Patent, 1947 issued by King George VI.
On April 17, 1982, Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, as well as the Minister of Justice, Jean Chrétien, and André Ouellet, the Registrar General, signed the Proclamation which brought the Constitution Act, 1982 into force.

1925 Canadian federal election

19251925 federal election1925 general election
For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election (that his party won), briefly "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later.
Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal Party formed a minority government.