Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Great BritainUK Prime MinisterPrime MinistersBritish Prime MinistersPrime Minister of United KingdomUnited KingdomPMPrime Minister of the UK
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (informally abbreviated to PM), until 1801 known as the Prime Minister of Great Britain, is the head of government of the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Cabinet of the United Kingdom

CabinetBritish Cabinetcabinet minister
The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and, together with the Prime Minister's Cabinet, (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads), is accountable to the Monarch, to Parliament, to his or her's political party and, ultimately, to the electorate for the policies and actions of the executive and the legislature.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 22 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

Prime minister

prime ministersPMchief minister
The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and, together with the Prime Minister's Cabinet, (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads), is accountable to the Monarch, to Parliament, to his or her's political party and, ultimately, to the electorate for the policies and actions of the executive and the legislature.
As well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

MonarchBritish monarchQueen of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and, together with the Prime Minister's Cabinet, (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads), is accountable to the Monarch, to Parliament, to his or her's political party and, ultimately, to the electorate for the policies and actions of the executive and the legislature. Many of the prime minister's executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the sovereign, who remains the head of state.
As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the prime minister.

House of Lords

LordsBritish House of LordsThe House of Lords
Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.
Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.

Parliament of the United Kingdom

ParliamentUK ParliamentBritish Parliament
The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and, together with the Prime Minister's Cabinet, (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads), is accountable to the Monarch, to Parliament, to his or her's political party and, ultimately, to the electorate for the policies and actions of the executive and the legislature.
By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less commonly, the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
The Office of the Prime Minister is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, whereby the reigning Monarch appoints as Prime Minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.
The Government is solely responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons.

First Lord of the Treasury

First LordPrime Ministerappointed
The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Minister for the Union. Prime ministers continue to hold the position of First Lord of the Treasury and, since November 1968, that of Minister for the Civil Service, the latter giving them authority over the civil service. Today the prime minister (First Lord of the Treasury), the Chancellor of the Exchequer (responsible for The Budget) and other senior members of the Cabinet sit on the Treasury bench and present policies in much the same way Ministers did late in the 17th century. However, this appellation is traditionally given to Sir Robert Walpole, who became First Lord of the Treasury of Great Britain in 1721.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister.

Royal prerogative in the United Kingdom

royal prerogativeprerogativeancient prerogative powers
Although the sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and legally remained the head of government, politically it gradually became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament.
Since the 19th century, by convention, the advice of the prime minister or the cabinet—who are then accountable to Parliament for the decision—has been required in order for the prerogative to be exercised.

List of residents of 10 Downing Street

residency
Indeed, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury.
Number 10 Downing Street is the residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithH H AsquithH.H. Asquith
In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs: In this country we live ... under an unwritten Constitution.
H. Asquith''', was a British statesman and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

constitutional conventionconventionconstitutional conventions
The British constitution consists of many documents and most importantly for the evolution of the office of the prime minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice.
For example, the constitutional convention that the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom cannot remain in office without the support of a majority of votes the House of Commons is derived from an unsuccessful attempt by the ministry of Robert Peel to govern without the support of a majority in the House, in 1834–1835.

Minister for the Union

The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Minister for the Union.
The Minister for the Union is a position created in the Johnson ministry to be held concurrently with the offices of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury.

Civil Service (United Kingdom)

Civil Servicecivil servantBritish Civil Service
Prime ministers continue to hold the position of First Lord of the Treasury and, since November 1968, that of Minister for the Civil Service, the latter giving them authority over the civil service.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.

Minister for the Civil Service

MinisterMinister for Digital Engagement and Civil Service IssuesParliamentary Secretary for the Civil Service Department
The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Minister for the Union. Prime ministers continue to hold the position of First Lord of the Treasury and, since November 1968, that of Minister for the Civil Service, the latter giving them authority over the civil service.
The position is invariably held by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Royal prerogative

prerogative powersprerogativeprerogative power
Many of the prime minister's executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the sovereign, who remains the head of state.
In the United Kingdom the remaining powers of the royal prerogative are devolved to the head of the government which for more than two centuries has been the Prime Minister; the benefits, equally, such as mineral rights in all gold and silver ores, vest in (belong to) the government.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (informally abbreviated to PM), until 1801 known as the Prime Minister of Great Britain, is the head of government of the United Kingdom.
The position of prime minister, the UK's head of government, belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

ChancellorSecond Lord of the TreasuryChancellors of the Exchequer
Today the prime minister (First Lord of the Treasury), the Chancellor of the Exchequer (responsible for The Budget) and other senior members of the Cabinet sit on the Treasury bench and present policies in much the same way Ministers did late in the 17th century.
The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State, and in recent times has come to be the most powerful office in British politics after the prime minister.

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham

William PittWilliam Pitt the ElderPitt
Since 1721, every head of the Sovereign's government – with one exception in the 18th century (William Pitt the Elder) and one in the 19th (Lord Salisbury) – has been First Lord of the Treasury.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
By the 1830s, the Westminster system of government (or cabinet government) had emerged; the Prime Minister had become primus inter pares or the first among equals in the Cabinet and the head of government in the United Kingdom.
In the United Kingdom, the sovereign theoretically holds executive authority, even though the prime minister and the cabinet effectively implement executive powers.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Lord SalisburyThe Marquess of SalisburyMarquess of Salisbury
Since 1721, every head of the Sovereign's government – with one exception in the 18th century (William Pitt the Elder) and one in the 19th (Lord Salisbury) – has been First Lord of the Treasury.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before the death of his elder brother in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.

Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer

Robert HarleyHarleyRobert Harley, Earl of Oxford
Jonathan Swift, for example, wrote in 1713 about "those who are now commonly called Prime Minister among us", referring to Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin and Robert Harley, Queen Anne's Lord Treasurers and chief ministers.
He has been called a Prime Minister, although it is generally accepted that the de facto first minister to be a prime minister was Robert Walpole in 1721.

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
The previous coalition in the UK before 2010 was led by Conservative Prime Minister Winston Churchill during most of the Second World War, from May 1940 to May 1945.
He was the prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955.

2010 United Kingdom general election

2010 general election20102010 election
When the general election of 2010 produced a hung parliament, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties agreed to form the Cameron–Clegg coalition, the first coalition in seventy years.
Realising that a deal between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats was imminent, the next day on Tuesday 11 May Brown announced his resignation as Prime Minister, marking the end of 13 years of Labour government.

George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing George
Although George I (1714–1727) attended Cabinet meetings at first, after 1717 he withdrew because he did not speak fluent English and was bored with the discussions.
Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister.

Robert Walpole

Sir Robert WalpoleWalpoleRobert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford
However, this appellation is traditionally given to Sir Robert Walpole, who became First Lord of the Treasury of Great Britain in 1721.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British politician who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.