Primitive (phylogenetics)

primitivebasaladvancedancestral traitderivedprimitive conditionancestorancestralmore advancedmore derived
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.wikipedia
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Phylogenetics

phylogeneticphylogenetic analysisphylogenetically
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.

Common descent

common ancestorcommon ancestryapical ancestor
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.

Non-vascular plant

lower plantsnon-vascularnonvascular plants
The technical terms are considered preferable because they are less likely to convey the sense that the trait mentioned is inferior, simpler, or less adaptive (e.g., as in lower and higher plants).

Vascular plant

vascular plantshigher plantsvascular
The technical terms are considered preferable because they are less likely to convey the sense that the trait mentioned is inferior, simpler, or less adaptive (e.g., as in lower and higher plants).

Plesiomorphy and symplesiomorphy

plesiomorphicplesiomorphsymplesiomorphy
The terms "plesiomorphy" and "apomorphy" are typically used in the technical literature: for example, when a plesiomorphic trait is shared by more than one member of a clade, the trait is called a symplesiomorphy, that is, a shared primitive trait; a shared derived trait is a synapomorphy.

Synapomorphy and apomorphy

derivedsynapomorphiessynapomorphy
The terms "plesiomorphy" and "apomorphy" are typically used in the technical literature: for example, when a plesiomorphic trait is shared by more than one member of a clade, the trait is called a symplesiomorphy, that is, a shared primitive trait; a shared derived trait is a synapomorphy.

Miacidae

miacidmiacids
Miacids are extinct primitive carnivoramorphans within the family Miacidae that lived during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, about 62–34 million years ago.

Diplomystidae

velvet catfish
Diplomystidae, the velvet catfishes, are a family of primitive catfishes endemic to freshwater habitats in Argentina and Chile in southern South America.

Crevice weaver

Filistatidaecrevice weavers
Crevice weaver spiders (Filistatidae) comprise cribellate spiders with features that have been regarded as "primitive" for araneomorph spiders.

Raninidae

raninidraninids
They are taken by most scientists to be quite primitive among the true crabs.

Fish anatomy

spinesspinecaudal fin
Sharks and rays are basal fish with numerous primitive anatomical features similar to those of ancient fish, including skeletons composed of cartilage.

Xenungulata

xenungulatesxenungulate
Xenungulata ("strange ungulates") is an order of extinct and primitive South American hoofed mammals that lived from the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (Itaboraian to Casamayoran in the SALMA classification).

Canterbury gecko

Woodworthia brunnea
Woodworthia geckos belong to the subfamily Diplodactylidae, known to be a primitive group found only in Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand.

Kentrosaurus

Kentrosaurus aethiopicusDoryphorosaurusKentrurosaurus
Often thought to be a "primitive" member of the Stegosauria, several recent cladistic analyses find it as more derived than many other stegosaurs, and a close relative of Stegosaurus from the North American Morrison Formation within the Stegosauridae.

Leadbeater's possum

GymnobelideusGymnobelideus leadbeateriLeadbeater’s possum
It is primitive, relict, and non-gliding, and, as the only species in the petaurid genus Gymnobelideus, represents an ancestral form.

Neanderthal anatomy

Also, many of these traits are present in modern humans to varying extent due to both archaic admixture and the retention of ancestral hominid traits shared with Neanderthals and other archaic humans.

Archaeognatha

jumping bristletailMicrocoryphiabristletails
Among extant insect taxa they are some of the most evolutionarily primitive; they appeared in the Middle Devonian period at about the same time as the arachnids.

Arowana

OsteoglossidaeOsteoglossinaeosteoglossid
Osteoglossids are basal teleosts that originated some time during the Cretaceous, and are placed in the actinopterygiid order Osteoglossiformes.

Philtrum

philtral columns
Together with a glandular rhinarium and slit-like nostrils, it is believed to constitute the primitive condition for at least therian mammals.

Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae

Taxonomy of the orchid familyOerstedellaorchid taxonomy
The apostasioid orchids are the most primitive orchids, with only two genera.

Cyrba

The genus has been described as primitive because of their pervasive use of webs, large posterior median eyes, and the secretory organs on the femora of males.

Opilioacariformes

OpilioacaridaeopilioacaridOpilioacarida
They are rare, large mites, and are widely considered primitive, as they retain six pairs of eyes, and abdominal segmentation.

Lungfish

DipnoidipnoanDipteriformes
Basal ("primitive") lungfish groups may retain marginal teeth and an ossified braincase, but derived lungfish groups, including all modern species, show a significant reduction in the marginal bones and a cartilaginous braincase.