Primogeniture

agnatic primogenitureabsolute primogenituremale-preference primogenituremale primogeniturecognatic primogenituremale-preference cognatic primogenitureagnaticbirthrightcognaticfirstborn son
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child or any collateral relative.wikipedia
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Appanage

apanagesecundogenitureappanages
Variations have tempered the traditional, sole-beneficiary, right (such as French appanage) or, in the West since World War II, eliminate the preference for males over females (absolute male-preference primogeniture).
An appanage, or apanage (apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.

Monarchy of the Netherlands

Queen of the NetherlandsDutch Royal FamilyKing of the Netherlands
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
The heir is determined through two mechanisms: absolute cognatic primogeniture and proximity of blood.

Agnatic seniority

agnaticseniorityAgnatic succession
Currently, succession to the Saudi Arabian throne uses a form of lateral agnatic seniority, as did the Kievan Rus' (see Rota system), the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Tanistry), the Mongol Empire (see lateral succession) or the later Ottoman Empire (see succession practices).
Contrast agnatic primogeniture, where the king's sons stand higher in succession than his brothers.

Order of succession

successionline of successionsuccession laws
Currently, succession to the Saudi Arabian throne uses a form of lateral agnatic seniority, as did the Kievan Rus' (see Rota system), the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Tanistry), the Mongol Empire (see lateral succession) or the later Ottoman Empire (see succession practices).
The rules may stipulate that eligible heirs are heirs male or heirs general – see further primogeniture (agnatic, cognatic, and also equal).

Monarchy of Luxembourg

Grand Duke of LuxembourgGrand DukeGrand Duchess of Luxembourg
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
The right to reign over Luxembourg was until June 2011 passed by agnatic-cognatic primogeniture within the House of Nassau, as stipulated under the 1815 Final Act of the Congress of Vienna and as confirmed by the 1867 Treaty of London.

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
The Holy Roman Emperor was selected for enthronement by a small number of powerful prince electors from among Europe's Christian males of inherited nobility.
In this respect, the nobility as a class has always been much more extensive than the primogeniture-based titled nobility, which included peerages in France and in the United Kingdom, grandezas in Portugal and Spain, and some noble titles in Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, Prussia and Scandinavia.

Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

Carl XVI GustafKing Carl XVI GustafKing Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
In 1980, Sweden amended its constitution to adopt royal succession by absolute primogeniture, displacing King Carl XVI Gustaf's infant son, Prince Carl Philip, in favor of his elder daughter, Princess Victoria, in the process.
The king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture (the first such law passed in European history ), is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia.

Moiety title

moietymoieties1st mediety
English primogeniture endures mainly in titles of nobility: any first-placed direct male-line descendant (e.g. eldest son's son's son) inherits the title before siblings and similar, this being termed "by right of substitution" for the deceased heir; secondly where children were only daughters they would enjoy the fettered use (life use) of an equal amount of the underlying real asset and the substantive free use (such as one-half inheritance) would accrue to their most senior-line male descendant or contingent on her marriage (moieties); thirdly, where the late estate holder had no descendants his oldest brother would succeed, and his descendants would likewise enjoy the rule of substitution where he had died.
Thus on the death of a feudal baron or lord of the manor without a male heir (the eldest of whom would inherit all his estates by the custom of male primogeniture) but with daughters as heiresses, a moiety of his fiefdom would generally pass to each daughter, to be held by her husband.

Tanistry

tanisttánaistetànaiste
Currently, succession to the Saudi Arabian throne uses a form of lateral agnatic seniority, as did the Kievan Rus' (see Rota system), the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Tanistry), the Mongol Empire (see lateral succession) or the later Ottoman Empire (see succession practices).
The state granted courtesy recognition to Irish chiefs based on primogeniture from the last known chief.

Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden

Crown Princess VictoriaCrown Princess Victoria of SwedenVictoria
In 1980, Sweden amended its constitution to adopt royal succession by absolute primogeniture, displacing King Carl XVI Gustaf's infant son, Prince Carl Philip, in favor of his elder daughter, Princess Victoria, in the process.
Her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture.

Ottoman dynasty

OttomanSultanHouse of Osman
Currently, succession to the Saudi Arabian throne uses a form of lateral agnatic seniority, as did the Kievan Rus' (see Rota system), the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Tanistry), the Mongol Empire (see lateral succession) or the later Ottoman Empire (see succession practices).
From the fourteenth through the late sixteenth centuries, the Ottomans practiced open succession – something historian Donald Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son."

Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland

Prince Carl PhilipCarl PhilipCarl Philip Bernadotte
In 1980, Sweden amended its constitution to adopt royal succession by absolute primogeniture, displacing King Carl XVI Gustaf's infant son, Prince Carl Philip, in favor of his elder daughter, Princess Victoria, in the process.
Carl Philip was heir apparent to the throne of Sweden for seven months, until 1 January 1980 when a change in the constitution came into effect which made natural birth order the basis for succession to the throne, replacing the principle of agnatic primogeniture.

Perth Agreement

proposals to change the rules of royal successionagreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realmsannounced
The changes, in summary, comprised: replacing male-preference primogeniture ― under which males take precedence over females in the royal succession ― with absolute primogeniture (which does not distinguish gender as a succession criterion); ending disqualification of any person who had married Roman Catholics; and that only six people closest to the throne require the monarch's permission to marry.

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
Order of succession (Primogeniture) in the monarchies of the World.png by succession.
Different systems of hereditary succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law).

Ultimogeniture

Borough EnglishBorough-EnglishMinorat
There were different types of succession based on agnatic primogeniture, all sharing the principle that inheritance is according to seniority of birth among siblings (compare to ultimogeniture) and seniority of lineage among the agnatic kin, firstly, among the sons of a monarch or head of family, with sons and their male-line issue inheriting before brothers and their issue.
The tradition has been far rarer historically than primogeniture (sole inheritance by the first-born) or partible inheritance (division of the estate among the children).

Monarchy of Denmark

King of DenmarkQueen of DenmarkDanish Monarchy
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Following a referendum in 2009, the Act of Succession was amended so that primogeniture no longer puts males over females.

Hereditary title

titlefamily titleshereditary
With respect to hereditary titles, it is usually the rule for Scotland and baronies by writ in the United Kingdom, but baronies by writ go into abeyance when the last male titleholder dies leaving more than one surviving sister or more than one descendant in the legitimate female line of the original titleholder.
Often a hereditary title is inherited only by the legitimate, eldest son of the original grantee or that son's male heir according to masculine primogeniture.

Succession to the Crown Act 2013

Succession to the Crown Bill 2012Succession to the Crown BillSuccession to the Crown Act
It was practiced in the succession to the once-separate thrones of England and Scotland (until their union under James VI and I) and then the United Kingdom until 2015, when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 changed it to absolute primogeniture.
The act repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, replacing male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those born in the line of succession after 28 October 2011, which meant the eldest child, regardless of sex, would precede his or her brothers and sisters.

Monarchy of Belgium

King of the BelgiansKingMonarch
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
Several monarchies have since followed suit: the Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, Belgium in 1991, Denmark in 2009, Luxembourg in 2011, and the Commonwealth realms (for people born after October 2011) in 2015.
Though today the Statute of Westminster is law only in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom, the convention of approval from the other realms was reasserted by the Perth Agreement of 2011, in which all 16 countries agreed in principle to change the succession rule to absolute primogeniture, to remove the restriction on the monarch being married to a Catholic, and to reduce the number of members of the Royal Family who need the monarch's permission to marry.

Proximity of blood

proximity in bloodblood relationshipclosest male relative
By proximity of blood, Edward was the closest relative to the dead king, as he was the son of the king's sister Isabella.
In effect, the application of this rule is a refusal to recognize the right of representation, a component of primogeniture.

Monarchy of Norway

King of NorwayMonarchKing
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
The order of succession to the Norwegian throne has followed absolute primogeniture since 1990, as is described in article 6 in the Constitution of Norway.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

MonarchBritish monarchQueen of the United Kingdom
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Succession was largely governed by male-preference cognatic primogeniture, under which sons inherit before daughters, and elder children inherit before younger ones of the same gender.

Abeyance

abeyantin abeyanceco-heiress
With respect to hereditary titles, it is usually the rule for Scotland and baronies by writ in the United Kingdom, but baronies by writ go into abeyance when the last male titleholder dies leaving more than one surviving sister or more than one descendant in the legitimate female line of the original titleholder.
Most such peerages pass to heirs-male, but the ancient baronies created by writ, as well as some very old earldoms, pass instead to heirs-general (by cognatic primogeniture).

Monarchies in Europe

European royaltyEuropean monarchiesEuropean monarchs
Most monarchies in Western Europe have eliminated this, in succession: Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
The succession order is determined by primogeniture in most European monarchies.