Prince Gong

Photo of a 39- or 40-year-old Prince Gong, taken by John Thompson in 1872 at the prince's residence.
Empress Xiaojingcheng and Prince Gong
Gulun Princess Rongshou (centre, seated)
Prince Gong Mansion

Imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

- Prince Gong

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Convention of Peking

Agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing dynasty of China and Great Britain, France, and the Russian Empire in 1860.

Prince Gong, photographed by Felice Beato, 2 November 1860, just days after he signed the treaty on 24 October 1860.

Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese, Prince Gong was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, who represented Britain and France respectively.

Guangxu Emperor

The tenth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

Portrait in The Palace Museum
Guangxu in Imperial clothing
Silver coin: 1 yuan Guangxu, Hupei Province (1895–1907)
Beiyang official newspaper during the 29th year of Guangxu's reign, 1903
Portrait of Emperor Guangxu. Illustration.
Portrait of the Guangxu Emperor in his study
Guangxu Emperor's bed photographed by a French army officer, c. 1901
The wedding of the Guangxu Emperor and Empress Longyu

Empress Dowager Ci'an suggested choosing one of Prince Gong's sons to be the next emperor, but was overruled by her co-regent, Empress Dowager Cixi.

Xianfeng Emperor

The eighth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1850 to 1861.

Portrait of the Xianfeng Emperor in his gardens
Yanbozhishuang Hall, where the Xianfeng Emperor died on 22 August 1861

He delegated Prince Gong for several negotiations but relations broke down completely when a British diplomat, Sir Harry Parkes, was arrested during negotiations on 18 September.

Empress Dowager Cixi

Chinese noblewoman, concubine and later regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908.

Oil painting by Hubert Vos (1905)
An early portrait of the Consort Dowager Kangci, foster mother of the Xianfeng Emperor. She hosted the selection of the Xianfeng Emperor's consorts in 1851, in which Cixi participated as a potential candidate.
The Pavilion of Beautiful Scenery, where Cixi gave birth to the Tongzhi Emperor
Portrait of Empress Dowager Ci'an (co-regent with Cixi), with whom Cixi staged the Xinyou Coup.
Photograph of Princess Rongshou (center seated), Prince Gong's daughter. As a way to show gratitude to the prince, Cixi adopted his daughter and elevated her to a first rank princess (the highest rank for imperial princesses).
Ceremonial headdress likely worn by Cixi. The small phoenixes emerging from the surface represent the empress. The Walters Art Museum
Portrait of Empress Xiaozheyi, also known as the Jiashun Empress and "Lady Arute", who had the approval of Empress Dowager Ci'an but never Cixi's. It is widely speculated that the Empress was pregnant with the Tongzhi Emperor's child and that Cixi orchestrated the empress's demise.
Portrait of the Tongzhi Emperor doing his coursework. Cixi's high expectations of him may have contributed to his strong distaste for learning.
Empress Dowager Cixi (front middle) poses with her court attendants and the Guangxu Emperor's empress (second from left), who was also her niece
Empress Dowager Cixi holds hands with the fourth daughter of Prince Qing (to her left) and chief palace eunuch Li Lianying (to her right). The lady standing in the background is Consort Jin (later Dowager Consort Duankang).
Consort Zhen, the Guangxu Emperor's most beloved consort, was initially liked, but eventually hated by Cixi.
Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor holding court, drawing by Katharine Carl
Empress Dowager Cixi and women of the American legation. Holding her hand is Sarah Conger, the wife of U.S. Ambassador Edwin H. Conger.
Empress Dowager Cixi, by Katharine Carl, 1904, commissioned by the Empress Dowager Cixi for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis World's Fair) and later given to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, transferred to the Smithsonian Museum of American Art collections and later the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.
Entrance to the burial chamber in Cixi's tomb
Memorial tower of the tomb of Empress Dowager Cixi
Photograph of Cixi
Katharine Carl oil portrait painted for exhibit at St. Louis World's Fair of 1904
The plaque hanging above Cixi is inscribed with her title in full
The Empress Dowager was a devoted Buddhist and seized every opportunity to dress up as Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin), the goddess of mercy. This photograph shows her sitting on a barge on Zhonghai. The white smoke forms the character for longevity, and on top of the smoke was her Buddhist name "Guangrenzi" (literally Universal Benevolence).

Among them was Prince Gong, who had been excluded from power, yet harboured great ambitions, and Prince Chun, the sixth and seventh brothers of the Xianfeng Emperor, respectively.

Zongli Yamen

The government body in charge of foreign policy in imperial China during the late Qing dynasty.

Front gate of the Zongli Yamen. The tablet reads "中外禔福" (Peace and Prosperity in China and Outside), from the biography of Sima Xiangru in the Book of Han. 
Photography c.1897–98 Marcel Monnier, le Tour d'Asie, Plon 1899
A photographic engraving of the members of the Zongli Yamen in 1894, at the time of the First Sino-Japanese War.

It was established by Prince Gong on 11 March 1861 after the Convention of Beijing.

Daoguang Emperor

The seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigning from 1820 to 1850.

The Daoguang Emperor in his study
The Daoguang Emperor inspecting his guards at the Meridian Gate of the Forbidden City
The Daoguang Emperor is presented with prisoners of the campaign to pacify rebels in Xinjiang at the Meridian Gate in 1828
Destroying Chinese war junks during the First Opium War
Photograph of Daoguang Emperor
From top to bottom, left to right: Empress Xiaoquancheng, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank, Yizhu, a lady-in-waiting, Yixin, Noble Consort Jing and Noble Consort Tong; circa 1837
From left to right: Yixin, Yizhu, Yihe, Yihui, Yixuan, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank and Princess Shou'en of the First Rank; circa 1848

Yixin, Prince Gongzhong of the First Rank (恭忠親王 奕䜣; 11 January 1833 – 29 May 1898), sixth son

Second Opium War

War, lasting from 1856 to 1860, which pitted the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China.

Palikao's bridge, on the evening of the battle of Palikao, by Émile Bayard
The Illustrated London News print of the clipper steamship Ly-ee-moon, built for the opium trade, c. 1859
The execution of the Paris Foreign Missions Society missionary Auguste Chapdelaine was the official cause of the French involvement in the Second Opium War.
The capture of Ye Mingchen after the fall of Canton
British troops taking a fort in 1860
Signing of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1858
Cousin-Montauban leading French forces during the 1860 campaign
Looting of the Old Summer Palace by Anglo-French forces in 1860
Ruins of the "Western style" complex in the Old Summer Palace, burnt down by Anglo-French forces
British taking Beijing
Second China War Medal, with Taku Forts 1860 bar.
French medal of the China Campaign ("Médaille de la Campagne de Chine"), 1861, in the Musée de la Légion d'Honneur. The Chinese characters inscribed on the ribbons read 'Beijing'.
Médaille de la Campagne de Chine, as Awarded to a member of the 101st Infantry
Qing flag seized by Anglo-French forces. The flag reads "親兵第五隊右營": Bodyguard, fifth squadron, right battalion (unit types are approximate), Les Invalides.

With the Qing army devastated, the Xianfeng Emperor fled the capital and left behind his brother, Prince Gong, to take charge of peace negotiations.

Xinyou Coup

Portrait of Empress Dowager Ci'an (co-regent with Cixi), with whom Cixi staged the Xinyou Coup.

Xinyou Coup was a palace coup instigated by Empress Dowagers Cixi and Ci'an, and Prince Gong to seize power after the death of the Xianfeng Emperor.

House of Aisin-Gioro

This family name uses Manchu naming customs.

Qing Empire in 1636
Nurhaci on his throne
Guangxu Emperor
Prince Puyi
Zaitao in the United States
Zaitao in Russia
Yixin (Prince Gong)
Yixin (Prince Gong)
Yixin (Prince Gong)
Zaixun (Prince Rui) in the United States
Zaixun (Prince Rui) in the United States
Zaixun (Prince Rui)
Zaitao and Zaixun (Prince Rui)
Yixuan (Prince Chun)
Yixuan (Prince Chun)
Yixuan (Prince Chun) and his wife
Yixuan (Prince Chun) with Li Hongzhang and Shanqing
Yixuan (Prince Chun) with his sons Zaixun and Zaifeng
Yixuan (Prince Chun)
Zaizhen (Prince Qing)
Zaizhen (Prince Qing)
Shanqi (Prince Su)
Shanqi (Prince Su)
Zaifeng (Prince Chun)
Zaifeng (Prince Chun)
Zaifeng (Prince Chun) and his family
Zaifeng (Prince Chun) and his sons, Puyi and Pujie
Yikuang (Prince Qing)
Yikuang (Prince Qing)
Xuantong Emperor
Puyi as Emperor of Manchukuo
Pujie and Hiro Saga on their wedding, 1937
Pujie with Gobulo Runqi
Pujie and Hiro Saga with their child
Pujie and Hiro Saga with their daughter Huisheng
Pujie with his wife, Hiro Saga
Pujie with Yunying and Runqi

Prince Gong, the line of Yixin (1833–1898), descendant of Daoguang Emperor

Grand Council (Qing dynasty)

Important policy-making body of China during the Qing dynasty.

Duty office of the Grand Council in the Forbidden City in Beijing, a relatively inconspicuous building close to the Emperor's quarters
The Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1722–1735) established the Grand Council.
Prince Gong (1833-1898), a prominent Grand Councilor during the reign of his brother, the Xianfeng Emperor, and in the court of Empress Dowager Cixi.

Papers were to be first sent to the empress dowagers, who would refer them back to the Prince-Regent, Prince Gong, who oversaw the Grand Council.