Princess Augusta of Great Britain

Portrait by Johann Georg Ziesenis
Augusta aged 14 in a family portrait of 1751 by George Knapton.
Princess Augusta, aged 17, by Liotard
Augusta by Angelica Kauffman, 1767; Royal Collection, London

British princess, granddaughter of King George II and the only elder sibling of King George III.

- Princess Augusta of Great Britain

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Caroline of Brunswick

Queen of the United Kingdom and Hanover as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821.

Portrait c. 1820 by James Lonsdale, "Principal Painter in Ordinary to the Queen". Her wedding ring is displayed prominently to emphasise fidelity to marriage vows.
Portrait by Gainsborough Dupont, c. 1795
Caroline, Princess of Wales by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1798
Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1804
Satirical cartoon showing Sir John and Lady Douglas being led to the pillory outside Montagu House, Blackheath, after being discredited in giving evidence against Caroline
A caricature by George Cruikshank mocking Caroline for her supposed affair with Pergami
The Trial of Queen Caroline, 1820 by Sir George Hayter
Portrait by Samuel Lane, 1820
Modesty!, etching published by G. Humphrey, London, 1821: Caroline of Brunswick, at a theatre in Genoa, with her secretary and constant companion Bartolomeo Pergami.
Caroline's arms, used from 1820

The daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain, Caroline was engaged to her cousin George in 1794, despite their never having met.

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick

The Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader.

Portrait by Johann Georg Ziesenis
Schloss Wolfenbüttel, probable birthplace of Charles William Ferdinand
Princess Augusta of Great Britain, his wife, painted c. 1763
Portrait of Charles William Ferdinand as Hereditary Prince by Pompeo Batoni, 1767.
Territory of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (orange-red) in 1789. The principality was composed of several non-contiguous parts, including the exclaves of Thedinghausen and Calvörde. Its largest neighbours were the Electorate of Hanover (in personal union with Great Britain, light yellow), the Electorate of Brandenburg (part of Prussia, light green) and the Bishopric of Hildesheim (light blue).
Equestrian statue of the duke in Brunswick, by.
Prussian troops entering Amsterdam on 10 October 1787
Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé, primary author of the Brunswick Manifesto
The Battle of Valmy, painted by Horace Vernet.
The wounded Duke of Brunswick after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt.
Engraving of the duke in later life from an 1835 publication.
Memorial in Christianskirche
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand II, Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1806) and Princess Augusta of Great Britain

The duke was a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great, and was married to Princess Augusta, a sister of George III of Great Britain.

Caroline Matilda of Great Britain

Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1772 by marriage to King Christian VII.

Pastel by Francis Cotes, 1766
Caroline Matilda in her mother's arms, detail from George Knapton's 1751 group portrait The Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales
Caroline Matilda, aged 3. Pastel by Jean-Étienne Liotard, 1754 (the Royal Collection).
The 16-year-old Queen stands next to her sister, Princess Louisa of Great Britain, by Francis Cotes
The departure of Caroline Matilda from Harwich for Rotterdam on board the yacht Mary on 3 October 1766. Landguard Fort on the left of the picture. Oil painting by Robert Wilkins, c. undefined 1766-1767.
Portrait by Catherine Read, 1767
Engraving of Caroline Matilda after giving birth to the future Frederick VI of Denmark
Royal physician Johann Friedrich Struensee
Caroline of Denmark by Jens Juel, 1769
Caroline Matilda's royal monogram
The Mathildeordenen
Caroline Matilda often dressed in male attire, here in the Queen's Life Regiment uniform.
Princess Louise Augusta, by Helfrich Peter Sturz, 1771
Monument in Celle, Germany.
Kristian Zahrtmann: Scene from the court of Christian VII. History painting from 1873 at the Hirschsprung Collection.
Kristian Zahrtmann: Interior from the court of Christian VII. History painting from 1881 at the Hirschsprung Collection.

Her godparents were her brother George, her aunt Caroline, and her sister Augusta.

Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels.

Painting by Johann Christian August Schwartz, 1809
Statue of Frederick William at Braunschweig, by Ernst Julius Hähnel
Tod des Schwarzen Herzogs (German: "Death of the Black Duke") at the Battle of Quatre Bras on 16 June 1815. An 1835 painting by Friedrich Matthäi now displayed in the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum.
Tomb of Frederick William, in the crypt of Brunswick Cathedral

Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (on the latter's 36th birthday), and Princess Augusta of Great Britain.

Caroline of Ansbach

Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and Electress of Hanover from 11 June 1727 until her death in 1737 as the wife of King George II.

Portrait by Michael Dahl, c. 1730
Ansbach in the 17th century
Engraving of the royal couple and their seven children who survived infancy
Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk (pictured) was one of Caroline's Women of the Bedchamber in addition to being one of Caroline's husband's mistresses.
The Princess of Wales, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 1716
Official Coronation medal of Queen Caroline in 1727 by J. Croker
Portrait by Jacopo Amigoni, 1735
Portrait by Joseph Highmore, 1735
Memorial to Caroline on the bank of the Serpentine, a picturesque lake in London created at her request

Caroline was relieved to discover that Augusta had given birth to a "poor, ugly little she-mouse", also called Augusta, rather than a "large, fat, healthy boy" as the pitiful nature of the baby made a supposititious child unlikely.


English country house and estate in the care of the National Trust in Buckinghamshire, on the border with Berkshire.

View looking north from the Ring in the Parterre showing Terrace Pavilion and Clock Tower to the left with Lower Terrace and Borghese Balustrade below
The north front
The Hall showing the fireplace and portrait of Nancy Astor
The French Dining Room
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham by Sir Peter Lely
The 1666 house. Only the arcaded terrace remains today. From Colen Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus, c.1717.
Frederick, Prince of Wales with his sisters, c. 1733, by Philippe Mercier
A 19th-century engraving of the 1851 house from the parterre
Nancy, Lady Astor by John Singer Sargent. The painting hangs at Cliveden.
Cliveden War Cemetery in the Cliveden grounds
The Pavilion Spa. The outdoor pool was a key location in the Profumo affair.
The parterre seen from the terrace, looking south, with the restored 19th-century style planting
Giacomo Leoni's 1735 "Octagon Temple"
Thomas Waldo Story's Fountain of Love inscribed 'Waldo Story Roma 1897'
The west front of Spring Cottage across the River Thames with the Cliveden beechwoods behind.
Cliveden from the River Thames
The house from the Parterre showing the restored 19th-century planting scheme
The Tortoise Fountain and view over the River Thames
The North front with Clock Tower
The dovecote behind the west-facing herbaceous border
The 19th-century boathouse designed by George Devey
Sir Bertram MacKennal's figure representing Canada in the War Memorial Garden.
Topiary spiral in the Long Garden.
A 19th-century Thames-side cottage designed by George Devey
The circular Rose Garden with temporary herbaceous planting.
The fountain in the Water garden
Wooden bear sculpture in the woods
Topiary and summer planting in the Long Garden
Gilded surrounds of the clock faces on the tower
Yew Tree Walk with its 172 cliff-side steps down to the Thames
Wounded Amazon statue purchased by W.W. Astor in the Rose Garden.
The avenue leading up to the house
The Pagoda in the Water Garden
The 19th-century flint folly in the woods
Planting in the Parterre viewed from the terrace.
18th-century Blenheim Pavilion - one of the oldest garden buildings at Cliveden.
Jets of water around the Fountain of Love.
Concrete tree-trunk folly (an old chimney) near the estate offices.
Seats in the Borghese Balustrade above the Parterre.
Granite Baboon statues in the Long Garden.

It was played as part of a masque to celebrate the third birthday of the Prince's daughter Augusta.


City in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz Mountains at the farthest navigable point of the river Oker, which connects it to the North Sea via the rivers Aller and Weser.

Dankwarderode Castle
Brunswick in the 16th century, from the Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.
Brunswick Cathedral, St. Blasius, with lion statue
Landschaftliches Haus, Landtag building of the Duchy and the Free State of Brunswick.
Braunschweig around 1900
Braunschweig on the night of 15 October 1944
Pedestrian zone in the city centre
Tram in Braunschweig
Braunschweig University of Technology
1904 postcard showing typical food of Braunschweig
Piëta, by Menashe Kadishman, Braunschweig
Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum
Villa Salve Hospes
The first German version of the rules of football by Konrad Koch
Eintracht-Stadion, the stadium of 3. Liga club Eintracht Braunschweig
Burgplatz, with Castle, Cathedral, lion, and Town Hall.
Brunswick Lion, original on display in castle museum.
Town Hall
Veltheimsches Haus (left) and Gildehaus (right)
Altstadtmarkt, with Old Town town hall (left) and Stechinelli-Haus
Church of St. Martin
Altstadt ("Old Town")
Haus zum Stern on Kohlmarkt
Church of St. Catherine and Henry the Lion's Fountain
St. Magnus' Church
Happy Rizzi House
Alte Waage
Church of St. Giles
State Theatre
Rebuilt exterior of Brunswick Palace
Schloss Richmond (Richmond Palace)
Riddagshausen Abbey
Boroughs of Braunschweig
Stadtteile of Braunschweig
Östliches Ringgebiet
Westliches Ringgebiet
Riddagshausen (Wabe-Schunter-Beberbach)

The baroque palace Schloss Richmond ("Richmond Palace"), built between 1768 and 1769 with a surrounding English garden for Princess Augusta of Great Britain, wife of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to remind her of her home in England.

Schloss Richmond

Richmond Castle
Wall and ceiling decorations
View from the garden side of the Oker river
Gerstäcker Museum
Central area

Richmond Castle ('Schloss Richmond') is a castle built from 1768 to 1769 in Braunschweig, Germany for Princess (later Duchess) Augusta, wife of Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand.

Ranger's House

Medium-sized red brick Georgian mansion in the Palladian style, adjacent to Greenwich Park in the south east of London.

Ranger's House, seen from Shooters Hill Road
The Ranger's House, Greenwich by George Robertson, 1791. Built about 1722–23 for Captain Francis Hosier. National Maritime Museum, London. (PT2659)
Gabriël Metsu - The Spinet

Chesterfield House, as it was known, was briefly renamed Brunswick house while occupied by the Duchess of Brunswick from 1807 to 1813.

Augusta Dorothea, Abbess of Gandersheim

Princess Abbess of Gandersheim Abbey from 1778 until 1810.

Auguste Drothea Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel by A.R. de Gasc

In the 1770s, her sister in law, Princess Augusta of Great Britain, condemned Augusta as well as her sister Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Crown Princess of Prussia, who had been imprisoned for adultery, for their love life.