Privacy

privatepersonal privacyprivacy rightsprivacy issuesprivate citizenright to privacyfreedom from governmentconfidentialitydata protectiondisclosure
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.wikipedia
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Privacy law

privacyprivacy lawsinvasion of privacy
The right not to be subjected to unsanctioned invasions of privacy by the government, corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws, and in some cases, constitutions.
Privacy laws are considered within the context of an individual's privacy rights or within reasonable expectation of privacy.

Seclusion

secluded
There is extensive commentary over the meaning of being "let alone", and among other ways, it has been interpreted to mean the right of a person to choose seclusion from the attention of others if they wish to do so, and the right to be immune from scrutiny or being observed in private settings, such as one's own home.
A person, couple, or larger group may go to a secluded place for privacy or peace and quiet.

Classified information

classifiedtop secretstate secret
For example, a government administration may be able to invoke executive privilege or declare certain information to be classified, or a corporation might attempt to protect valuable proprietary information as trade secrets.
Some corporations and non-government organizations also assign levels of protection to their private information, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases.

The Right to Privacy (article)

The Right to Privacythat titleThe Right to Privacy,
In 1890 the United States jurists Samuel D. Warren and Louis Brandeis wrote The Right to Privacy, an article in which they argued for the "right to be let alone", using that phrase as a definition of privacy.
It is "one of the most influential essays in the history of American law" and is widely regarded as the first publication in the United States to advocate a right to privacy, articulating that right primarily as a "right to be let alone".

Identity theft

identity thiefidentity thievesfalse identity
Personal information which is voluntarily shared but subsequently stolen or misused can lead to identity theft.
The acquisition of personal identifiers is made possible through serious breaches of privacy.

Daniel J. Solove

Daniel Solove
Building from this and other historical precedents, Daniel J. Solove presented another classification of actions which are harmful to privacy, including collection of information which is already somewhat public, processing of information, sharing information, and invading personal space to get private information.
He is well known for his academic work on privacy and for popular books on how privacy relates with information technology.

Expectation of privacy

reasonable expectation of privacyinvasion of privacybelieved they could speak freely
Invasion of privacy, a subset of expectation of privacy, is a different concept from the collecting, aggregating, and disseminating information because those three are a misuse of available data, whereas invasion is an attack on the right of individuals to keep personal secrets.

Data breach

leakeddata leakData spill
Most such incidents publicized in the media involve private information on individuals, e.g. social security numbers.

Right to privacy

invasion of privacyprivacy rightsright of privacy
In Italy the right to privacy is enshrined in Article 15 of the Constitution, which states:
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.

The Naked Society

Vance Packard’s The Naked Society was a popular book on privacy from that era and led discourse on privacy at that time.
The Naked Society is a 1964 book on privacy by Vance Packard.

Data Protection Directive

Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal dataDirective 95/46/ECEuropean Data Protection Directive
The European Union's 1995 Data Protection Directive guides privacy protection in Europe.
The right to privacy is a highly developed area of law in Europe.

Data aggregation

data aggregatoraggregationaggregate
Privacy activists argue that database aggregators can provide erroneous information.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
In Italy the right to privacy is enshrined in Article 15 of the Constitution, which states:
The Constitution recognises habeas corpus and the presumption of innocence; violations of personal liberties, properties and privacy are forbidden without an order of the Judiciary stating a reason, and outside the limits imposed by the law.

Samuel D. Warren

Samuel WarrenSamuel Dennis Warren IIWarren
In 1890 the United States jurists Samuel D. Warren and Louis Brandeis wrote The Right to Privacy, an article in which they argued for the "right to be let alone", using that phrase as a definition of privacy.
It is "one of the most influential essays in the history of American law" and is widely regarded as the first publication in the United States to advocate a right to privacy, articulating that right primarily as a "right to be let alone".

Pretty Good Privacy

PGPOpenPGPPretty Good Privacy (PGP)
For example, e-mails can be encrypted (via S/MIME or PGP) and anonymizing proxies or anonymizing networks like I2P and Tor can be used to prevent the internet service providers from knowing which sites one visits and with whom one communicates.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.

Electronic Privacy Information Center

EPIC Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
The Electronic Privacy Information Center's Privacy Index puts Brazil, Australia, Japan and South Africa in the higher level of privacy (around 2.2).
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is an independent nonprofit research center in Washington, D.C. EPIC's mission is to focus public attention on emerging privacy and related human rights issues.

Targeted advertising

behavioral targetingtargetingbehavioral advertising
As of December 2010, the Federal Trade Commission is reviewing policy regarding this issue as it relates to behavioral advertising.
Most of today's websites are using these targeting technologies to track users' internet behavior and there is much debate over the privacy issues present.

Privacy policy

privacy policiescorporate privacy policiesinformed
It fulfils a legal requirement to protect a customer or client's privacy.

Solitude

isolationsocial withdrawalwithdrawal
It may be desired for the sake of privacy.

Vance Packard

Packard, VanceThe Hidden Persuaders
Vance Packard’s The Naked Society was a popular book on privacy from that era and led discourse on privacy at that time.

Privacy Act of 1974

Privacy Act1974 Privacy ActComputer Matching and Privacy Act
Privacy is regulated in the US by the Privacy Act of 1974, and various state laws.

Privacy laws of the United States

right to privacyviolation of privacyinvasion of privacy
False light is a legal term that refers to a tort concerning privacy that is similar to the tort of defamation.

Wikipedia

wikipedia.orgMobile Wikipediaparody of Wikipedia
One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.

Digital identity

identityAuthenticationdigital identities
Selective disclosure allows for appropriate privacy of information within a network of identity relationships.