Privateer

privateersprivateeringcorsaircorsairscorsairingFrench privateerBermudian Privateeringcorporate piratecorsairescorsairs of North Africa
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.wikipedia
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Francis Drake

Sir Francis DrakeDrakeDrake, Francis
Elizabeth's authorisation of sea-raiders (known as Sea Dogs) such as Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh allowed her to distance herself from their raiding activity while enjoying the benefits of their plunder.
1540 – 28 January 1596 ) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, pirate, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.

John Quelch (pirate)

John QuelchCaptain Quelch
Boston minister Cotton Mather lamented after the execution of pirate John Quelch: "Yea, Since the Privateering Stroke, so easily degenerates into the Piratical; and the Privateering Trade, is usually carried on with so Unchristian a Temper, and proves an inlet unto so much Debauchery, and Iniquity, and Confusion, I believe, I shall have Good men Concur with me, in wishing, That Privateering may no more be practised, except there may appear more hopeful Circumstances to Encourage it."
In July, 1703, Governor Joseph Dudley of Boston sent out Captain Daniel Plowman of the Charles with a privateering license to attack French and Spanish ships off the coast of Newfoundland and Arcadia.

William Kidd

Captain KiddCaptain William KiddWilliam "Captain" Kidd
William Kidd accepted a commission from the British king William to hunt pirates but was later hanged for piracy.
Later, during the War of the Grand Alliance, on commissions from the provinces of New York and Massachusetts Bay, Kidd captured an enemy privateer off the New England coast.

Hayreddin Barbarossa

BarbarossaBarbarossa Hayreddin PashaBarbaros
The brothers initially worked as sailors, but then turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) who were based in the island of Rhodes (until 1522).

Spanish Armada

ArmadaBattle of GravelinesSpanish invasion
A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588.
The aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas.

Tunis

Tunis, TunisiaTunesMellassine
It did not help that many European privateers happily accepted commissions from the deys of Algiers, Tangiers and Tunis.
Charles, suffering losses from the corsairs operating out of Djerba, Tunis, and Algiers, agreed to reinstate Mulai Hassan in exchange for his acceptance of Spanish suzerainty.

Lars Gathenhielm

LarsLars Gathe
Lars Gathenhielm (1689–1718) was a Swedish merchant and privateer.

Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660)

Anglo-Spanish WarAnglo-Spanish War (1654–60)Anglo-Spanish War (1654)
During the subsequent war with Spain, Spanish and Flemish privateers in the service of the Spanish Crown, including the Dunkirkers, captured 1,500 English merchant ships, helping to restore Dutch international trade.
Each side attacked the other's commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions.

Benjamin Fletcher

Governor Benjamin FletcherFletcherGov. Fletcher
New York Governors Jacob Leisler and Benjamin Fletcher were removed from office in part for their dealings with pirates such as Thomas Tew, to whom Fletcher had granted commissions to sail against the French, but who ignored his commission to raid Mughal shipping in the Red Sea instead.
One of the most well-known privateers of the era was Captain William Kidd, later hanged in England after being convicted of piracy.

Magnus Heinason

Magnus Heinason was another privateer who served the Dutch against the Spanish.
Magnus Heinason (Mogens Heinesøn) (1548 – 18 January 1589) was a Faroese naval hero, trader and privateer.

Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law

Declaration of ParisParis Declaration of 18561856 Paris Declaration
Privateering continued until 1856 when the Declaration of Paris, signed by all major European powers, stated that "Privateering is and remains abolished".
Written by France and Great Britain, its primary goal was to abolish privateering, whereby a belligerent party gave formal permission for armed privately owned ships to seize enemy vessels.

Chasseur (1812 clipper)

ChasseurChasseur'',
For instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late; in this instance, however, the privateer prevailed.
She was one of the best equipped and manned American privateers during the War of 1812.

Frigate

frigatesguided missile frigatearmored frigate
The United States used mixed squadrons of frigates and privateers in the American Revolutionary War.
This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies.

Sea Dogs

Sea Dog
Elizabeth's authorisation of sea-raiders (known as Sea Dogs) such as Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh allowed her to distance herself from their raiding activity while enjoying the benefits of their plunder.
The Sea Dogs were a group of sea-raiders, (privateers, "Elizabethan Pirates"), who were authorised by Queen Elizabeth I of England, and also engaged in slave trading.

HMS St Lawrence (1813)

HMS ''St LawrenceAtlasSt Lawrence
For instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late; in this instance, however, the privateer prevailed.
During the War of 1812 she was the American privateer Atlas.

Andrew Barton (privateer)

Andrew BartonSir Andrew BartonAndrew
Sir Andrew Barton, Lord High Admiral of Scotland, followed the example of his father, who had been issued with letters of marque by James III of Scotland to prey upon English and Portuguese shipping in 1485; the letters in due course were reissued to the son.
He gained notoriety as a privateer, making raids against Portuguese ships.

Christopher Newport

Captain Christopher NewportAdmiral Christopher NewportCaptain Newport
Captain Christopher Newport led more attacks on Spanish shipping and settlements than any other English privateer.
Christopher Newport (1561–1617) was an English seaman and privateer.

Henry Morgan

Sir Henry MorganCaptain Henry MorganCaptain Morgan
Sir Henry Morgan was a successful privateer.
undefined 1635 – 25 August 1688) was a Welsh privateer, plantation owner, and, later, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.

Spanish treasure fleet

Spanish plate fleettreasure fleettreasure fleets
English ships cruised in the Caribbean and off the coast of Spain, trying to intercept treasure fleets from the Spanish Main.
The Spanish government created a system of convoys in the 1560s in response to the sacking of Havana by French privateers.

Kingdom of Scotland

ScotlandScottishScots
England and Scotland practiced privateering both separately and together after they united to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.
The Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, but often relied on privateers and fought a guerre de course.

Quasi-War

Quasi WarQuasi-War with Franceundeclared war
Following the French Revolution, French privateers became a menace to British and American shipping in the western Atlantic and the Caribbean, resulting in the Quasi-War, a brief conflict between France and the United States, fought largely at sea, and to the Royal Navy's procuring Bermuda sloops to combat the French privateers.
First, France authorized privateers to seize U.S. ships trading with Great Britain, and taking them back to port as prizes to be sold.

Royal Navy

RNBritish NavyBritish Royal Navy
It was a way to gain for themselves some of the wealth the Spanish and Portuguese were taking from the New World before beginning their own trans-Atlantic settlement, and a way to assert naval power before a strong Royal Navy emerged.
In 1588, Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada against England to end English support for Dutch rebels, to stop English corsair activity and to depose the Protestant Elizabeth I and restore Catholicism to England.

Rover (privateering ship)

Roverbrig ''RoverRover'' (privateering ship)
Notable British colonial privateers in Nova Scotia include Alexander Godfrey of the brig Rover and Joseph Barss of the schooner Liverpool Packet.
Rover was a privateer brig out of Liverpool, Nova Scotia known for several bold battles in the Napoleonic Wars.

Liverpool Packet

Notable British colonial privateers in Nova Scotia include Alexander Godfrey of the brig Rover and Joseph Barss of the schooner Liverpool Packet.
Liverpool Packet was a privateer schooner from Liverpool, Nova Scotia, that captured 50 American vessels in the War of 1812.

Piet Pieterszoon Hein

Piet HeinPiet HeynPieter Heyn
Piet Pieterszoon Hein was a brilliantly successful Dutch privateer who captured a Spanish treasure fleet.
Modern historians today often classify Hein as a pirate, though he was more properly a privateer; the Dutch Republic was locked in mortal combat with the Habsburgs and Hein was among the most successful and famous commanders it employed during the Eighty Years' War.