Privatization

privatisationprivatizedprivatisedprivatizeprivatiseprivatizingprivatisingdenationalizationdenationalisationprivate
Privatization (or privatisation in British English) can mean different things including moving something from the public sector into the private sector.wikipedia
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Deregulation

deregulatedderegulatederegulating
It is also sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a heavily regulated private company or industry becomes less regulated.
Deregulation can be distinguished from privatization, where privatization can be seen as taking state-owned service providers into the private sector.

Nationalization

nationalisationnationalisednationalized
In the case of a for-profit company, the shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity; in the case the partial or full sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private owners shares may be traded in the public market for the first time, or for the first time since an enterprise's previous nationalization. British Rail had been formed by prior nationalization of private rail companies.
The opposites of nationalization are privatization and demutualization.

Demutualization

demutualiseddemutualisationdemutualized
The second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization, cooperative, or public-private partnership in order to form a joint-stock company.
It is sometimes called stocking or privatization.

Public–private partnership

public-private partnershipthird-sectorthird sector
The second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization, cooperative, or public-private partnership in order to form a joint-stock company.
PPPs are closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services.

Britoil

British National Oil CorporationBNOCBP (Britoil)
Notable privatization attempts in the UK included privatization of Britoil (1982), Amersham International PLC (1982), British Telecom (1984), Sealink ferries (1984), British Petroleum (gradually privatized between 1979 and 1987), British Aerospace (1985 to 1987), British Gas (1986), Rolls-Royce (1987), Rover Group (formerly British Leyland, 1988), British Steel Corporation (1988), and the regional water authorities (mostly in 1989).
Britoil was originally a privatised British oil company operating in the North Sea.

2005 Japanese general election

20052005 general electionSeptember 2005 general election
After the Upper House rejected privatization, Koizumi scheduled nationwide elections for September 11, 2005.
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi called the election after bills to privatize Japan Post were voted down in the upper house (which cannot be dissolved), despite strong opposition within his own Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) (LDP).

Rover Group

RoverRover Group plcThe Rover Group
Notable privatization attempts in the UK included privatization of Britoil (1982), Amersham International PLC (1982), British Telecom (1984), Sealink ferries (1984), British Petroleum (gradually privatized between 1979 and 1987), British Aerospace (1985 to 1987), British Gas (1986), Rolls-Royce (1987), Rover Group (formerly British Leyland, 1988), British Steel Corporation (1988), and the regional water authorities (mostly in 1989).
This group was privatised in 1988 by the sale of the company to British Aerospace (BAe) for £150 million, who retained Day as joint CEO and Chairman, and made Kevin Morley MD of Rover cars.

Margaret Thatcher

ThatcherBaroness ThatcherThatcherite
However, it was in the 1980s under Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States that privatization gained worldwide momentum. The United Kingdom's largest public share offerings were privatizations of British Telecom and British Gas during the 1980s under the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, when many state-run firms were sold off to the private sector.
The policy of privatisation has been called "a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism".

Treuhandanstalt

TreuhandTreuhand institution
In the 1990s, the governments in Eastern and Central Europe engaged in extensive privatization of state-owned enterprises in Eastern and Central Europe and Russia, with assistance from the World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the German Treuhand, and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
The Treuhandanstalt ("Trust agency"), colloquially referred to as Treuhand, was an agency established by the government of the German Democratic Republic to reprivatize / privatize East German enterprises, Volkseigene Betriebe (VEBs), prior to the German reunification.

British Gas plc

British GasGas Act 1986British Gas Corporation
The United Kingdom's largest public share offerings were privatizations of British Telecom and British Gas during the 1980s under the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, when many state-run firms were sold off to the private sector.
It was formed when the British Gas Corporation was privatized in December 1986, as a result of the privatizations instigated by the government of Margaret Thatcher.

Municipally owned corporation

municipalmunicipally ownedprovincially- or municipally-owned corporations
In the case of a for-profit company, the shares are then no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity; in the case the partial or full sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private owners shares may be traded in the public market for the first time, or for the first time since an enterprise's previous nationalization. Another definition is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private investors.
Under New Public Management, corporatization became prominent as a step towards (partial) privatization.

Privatization in Russia

privatizationprivatizedRussian privatization
Voucher privatization occurred mainly in the transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe, such as Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.
Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets, particularly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.

Transition economy

transitiontransition economiescountry in transition
Voucher privatization occurred mainly in the transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe, such as Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Governments in developing countries and transition countries more often resort to direct asset sales to a few investors, partly because those countries do not yet have a stock market with high capital.
In addition to this trade barriers are removed, there is a push to privatize state-owned enterprises and resources, state and collectively run enterprises are restructured as businesses, and a financial sector is created to facilitate macroeconomic stabilization and the movement of private capital.

Nippon Telegraph and Telephone

NTTNippon Telegraph and Telephone CorporationNTT East
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone's privatization in 1987 involved the largest share offering in financial history at the time.
Established as a state monopoly in August 1952 to take over the Japanese telecommunications system operated by AT&T during the Occupation of Japan, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation was privatized in 1985 to encourage competition in the country's telecom market.

Amersham plc

Amersham InternationalAmershamAmersham Health
Notable privatization attempts in the UK included privatization of Britoil (1982), Amersham International PLC (1982), British Telecom (1984), Sealink ferries (1984), British Petroleum (gradually privatized between 1979 and 1987), British Aerospace (1985 to 1987), British Gas (1986), Rolls-Royce (1987), Rover Group (formerly British Leyland, 1988), British Steel Corporation (1988), and the regional water authorities (mostly in 1989).
The Radiochemical Centre Limited became Amersham International Limited in 1981, and it was privatised in 1982 under the name Amersham International plc.

Voucher privatization

privatization voucherprivatization vouchersvoucher method
Voucher privatization is a privatization method where citizens are given or can inexpensively buy a book of vouchers that represent potential shares in any state-owned company.

Neoliberalism

neoliberalneo-liberalneo-liberalism
This neoliberal criticism highlights the ongoing conflict between varying visions of economic development.
Neoliberalism is generally associated with policies of economic liberalization, including privatization, deregulation, free trade, austerity, and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Voucher privatization occurred mainly in the transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe, such as Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.
Both countries went through economic reforms and privatisations, with the intention of creating a market economy.

Cochabamba Water War

2000 Cochabamba protestsCochabamba protests of 2000Cochabamba
This was the case in the 2000 Cochabamba protests.
The Cochabamba Water War was a series of protests that took place in Cochabamba, Bolivia's fourth largest city, between December 1999 and April 2000 in response to the privatization of the city's municipal water supply company SEMAPA.

Japan Post

postal privatisation billsJapanese post officepostal privatization
Ongoing privatization of Japan Post relates to that of the national postal service and one of the largest banks in the world.
Japan Post's formation was part of then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's long-term reform plan and was intended to culminate in the full privatization of the postal service.

British Steel (1967–1999)

British Steel CorporationBritish SteelBritish Steel plc
Notable privatization attempts in the UK included privatization of Britoil (1982), Amersham International PLC (1982), British Telecom (1984), Sealink ferries (1984), British Petroleum (gradually privatized between 1979 and 1987), British Aerospace (1985 to 1987), British Gas (1986), Rolls-Royce (1987), Rover Group (formerly British Leyland, 1988), British Steel Corporation (1988), and the regional water authorities (mostly in 1989).
Following Margaret Thatcher's reelection, on 3 December 1987 the Conservative government formally announced in a statement by Kenneth Clarke, Minister of State for Trade and Industry, that it intended to privatise British Steel Corporation.

Competition law

antitrustantitrust lawanti-trust
Competition law is closely connected with law on deregulation of access to markets, state aids and subsidies, the privatization of state owned assets and the establishment of independent sector regulators, among other market-oriented supply-side policies.

Private defense agency

private defense agenciesprivate defenseprivately funded competitors
However, anarcho-capitalists prefer that every function of the state be privatized, including defense and dispute resolution.
Both hold that a PDA would be part of a privatized system of law, police, courts, insurance companies and arbitration agencies who are responsible for preventing and dealing with aggression.

British Rail

British RailwaysBRnationalisation
British Rail had been formed by prior nationalization of private rail companies.
In 1989, the ITV Sketch Show Spitting Image parodied Hudson's 1988 British Rail, Britain's Railway advert on the plans of the then Conservative British Government to privatise the railways featuring many of the show's puppets (including the show's portrayal of former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher), numerous BR trains and landmarks and even a cardboard cutout of Thomas the Tank Engine.

World Bank

The World BankIBRDWorld Bank Group
In the 1990s, the governments in Eastern and Central Europe engaged in extensive privatization of state-owned enterprises in Eastern and Central Europe and Russia, with assistance from the World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the German Treuhand, and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
In the 1990s, the World Bank and the IMF forged the Washington Consensus, policies that included deregulation and liberalization of markets, privatization and the downscaling of government.