Pro-sentence

prosentence
A pro-sentence is a sentence where the subject pronoun has been dropped and therefore the sentence has a null subject.wikipedia
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Pro-form

proformCorrelativescorrelative pronoun
A pro-sentence is a kind of pro-form and is therefore anaphoric.
A pro-sentence substitutes an entire sentence or subsentence: Yes, or that as in "That is true".

Yes and no

noyesyes" or "no
In English, yes, no, okay and amen are common pro-sentences.
They are sometimes classified as a part of speech in their own right, sentence words, word sentences, or pro-sentences, although that category contains more than yes and no and not all linguists include them in their lists of sentence words.

Truth

truetheory of truthtruth theory
The prosentential theory of truth developed by Dorothy Grover, Nuel Belnap, and Joseph Camp, and defended more recently by Robert Brandom, holds that sentences like "p" is true and It is true that p should not be understood as ascribing properties to the sentence "p", but as a pro-sentence whose content is the same as that of "p."
They argue that sentences like "That's true", when said in response to "It's raining", are prosentences, expressions that merely repeat the content of other expressions.

Anaphora (linguistics)

anaphoraanaphoricanaphor
A pro-sentence is a kind of pro-form and is therefore anaphoric.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
In English, yes, no, okay and amen are common pro-sentences.

OK

okayoll korrectterm of approval
In English, yes, no, okay and amen are common pro-sentences.

Amen

amēnchoral amenSiya nawâ
In English, yes, no, okay and amen are common pro-sentences.

Interjection

interjectionsexclamationexclamatory particle
Pro-sentences are sometimes seen as grammatical interjections, since they are capable of very limited syntactical relations.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Pro-sentences are sometimes seen as grammatical interjections, since they are capable of very limited syntactical relations.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
But they can also be classified as a distinct part of speech, given that (other) interjections have meanings of their own and are often described as expressions of feelings or emotions.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
But they can also be classified as a distinct part of speech, given that (other) interjections have meanings of their own and are often described as expressions of feelings or emotions.

Feeling

sentimentfeelingsgut feeling
But they can also be classified as a distinct part of speech, given that (other) interjections have meanings of their own and are often described as expressions of feelings or emotions.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
But they can also be classified as a distinct part of speech, given that (other) interjections have meanings of their own and are often described as expressions of feelings or emotions.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
In some languages, the equivalents to yes and no may substitute not only a whole sentence, but also a part of it, either the subject and the verb, or the verb and a complement, and can also constitute a subordinate clause.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
In some languages, the equivalents to yes and no may substitute not only a whole sentence, but also a part of it, either the subject and the verb, or the verb and a complement, and can also constitute a subordinate clause.

Complement (linguistics)

complementcomplementscomplemented
In some languages, the equivalents to yes and no may substitute not only a whole sentence, but also a part of it, either the subject and the verb, or the verb and a complement, and can also constitute a subordinate clause.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
In some languages, the equivalents to yes and no may substitute not only a whole sentence, but also a part of it, either the subject and the verb, or the verb and a complement, and can also constitute a subordinate clause.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
The Portuguese word sim (yes) gives a good example:

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
In some languages, such as English, yes rebuts a negative question, whereas no affirms it. However, in Japanese, the equivalents of no (iie, uun, (i)ya) rebut a negative question, whereas the equivalents of yes (hai, ee, un) affirm it.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
German has "doch"; French has "si"; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish have jo, Hungarian has "de".

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
German has "doch"; French has "si"; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish have jo, Hungarian has "de".

Si

Sì'' (album)
German has "doch"; French has "si"; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish have jo, Hungarian has "de".

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
German has "doch"; French has "si"; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish have jo, Hungarian has "de".

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageda
German has "doch"; French has "si"; Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish have jo, Hungarian has "de".