# Probability and statistics

**probability, statistics**

Probability and statistics, also called statistics and probability, are two related but separate academic disciplines.wikipedia

47 Related Articles

### Statistics

**statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician**

Statistical analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together.

The earliest writings on probability and statistics, statistical methods drawing from probability theory, date back to Arab mathematicians and cryptographers, notably Al-Khalil (717–786) and Al-Kindi (801–873).

### Probability theory

**theory of probabilityprobabilityprobability theorist**

However, probability theory contains much that is mostly of mathematical interest and not directly relevant to statistics.

The earliest known forms of probability and statistics were developed by Arab mathematicians studying cryptography between the 8th and 13th centuries.

### List of statistics articles

**List of statistical topicsList of statistics topicsIndex of statistics articles**

### Discipline (academia)

**academic disciplinedisciplinesdiscipline**

Probability and statistics, also called statistics and probability, are two related but separate academic disciplines.

### Probability distribution

**distributioncontinuous probability distributiondiscrete probability distribution**

Statistical analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together.

### Mathematics

**mathematicalmathmathematician**

However, probability theory contains much that is mostly of mathematical interest and not directly relevant to statistics.

### Mathematics in medieval Islam

**mathematicianmathematicsIslamic mathematics**

Forms of probability and statistics were developed by Arab mathematicians studying cryptology between the 8th and 13th centuries.

### Cryptography

**cryptographiccryptographercryptology**

Forms of probability and statistics were developed by Arab mathematicians studying cryptology between the 8th and 13th centuries.

### Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi

**Al-KhalilKhalil ibn AhmadAl-Farahidi**

Al-Khalil (717–786) wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages which contains the first use of permutations and combinations to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels.

### Twelvefold way

**permutations and combinationscombinationcombinations**

Al-Khalil (717–786) wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages which contains the first use of permutations and combinations to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels.

### Arabic

**Arabic languageArabic-languageArab**

Al-Khalil (717–786) wrote the Book of Cryptographic Messages which contains the first use of permutations and combinations to list all possible Arabic words with and without vowels.

### Al-Kindi

**AlkindusAl-KindīAl Kindi**

Al-Kindi (801–873) made the earliest known use of statistical inference in his work on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis.

### Statistical inference

**inferential statisticsinferenceinferences**

Al-Kindi (801–873) made the earliest known use of statistical inference in his work on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis.

### Cryptanalysis

**cryptanalystcodebreakingcodebreaker**

Al-Kindi (801–873) made the earliest known use of statistical inference in his work on cryptanalysis and frequency analysis.

### Frequency analysis

**Frequency analysis (cryptanalysis)frequenciesfrequency analyzed**

### Ibn 'Adlan

**Ibn Adlan**

An important contribution of Ibn Adlan (1187–1268) was on sample size for use of frequency analysis.

### Sample size determination

**sample sizeSampling sizessample**

An important contribution of Ibn Adlan (1187–1268) was on sample size for use of frequency analysis.

### Random variable

**random variablesrandom variationrandom**

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is described informally as a variable whose values depend on outcomes of a random phenomenon.

### Compound probability distribution

**compound distributionmixturecompounding**

In probability and statistics, a compound probability distribution (also known as a mixture distribution or contagious distribution) is the probability distribution that results from assuming that a random variable is distributed according to some parametrized distribution, with (some of) the parameters of that distribution themselves being random variables.

### Generalized beta distribution

**generalized beta distribution of the first kindgeneralized beta distribution of the second kindgeneralized Beta II (GB2)**

In probability and statistics, the generalized beta distribution is a continuous probability distribution with five parameters, including more than thirty named distributions as limiting or special cases.

### Gompertz distribution

**Gompertz**

In probability and statistics, the Gompertz distribution is a continuous probability distribution, named after Benjamin Gompertz.

### Inverse-chi-squared distribution

**inverse of the chi-squared functionInverse-chi-square distribution**

In probability and statistics, the inverse-chi-squared distribution (or inverted-chi-square distribution ) is a continuous probability distribution of a positive-valued random variable.