Problem-based learning

Problem Based Learningproblem-basedProblem-Based Learning (PBL)case and problem-based learningPBLPBL systemproblemproblem basedproblem based learning (PBL)problem-based curriculum
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material.wikipedia
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Medical school

medical studentFaculty of Medicinemedical students
The PBL process was pioneered by Barrows and Tamblyn at the medical school program at McMaster University in Hamilton in the 1960s.
The University of Ghana Medical School and KNUST School of Medical Sciences in Kumasi use the Tradition medical education model whiles University for Development Studies School of Medicine uses the problem-based learning model.

Howard Barrows

Barrows
The PBL process was pioneered by Barrows and Tamblyn at the medical school program at McMaster University in Hamilton in the 1960s.
Trained as a neurologist, Barrows is best known today for his many innovations in medical education, particularly teaching using Problem-Based Learning (PBL), developed while he was a professor at McMaster University Medical School, assessing clinical skills using simulated patients, and studying clinical reasoning using stimulated recall techniques.

McMaster University

McMasterCanadian Literary InstituteMcMasters University
The PBL process was pioneered by Barrows and Tamblyn at the medical school program at McMaster University in Hamilton in the 1960s.
During the 1960s the McMaster University Medical School pioneered problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials that have since been adopted by other programs and faculties within the university.

Inquiry-based learning

inquiry-based scienceinquiry-basedinquiry learning
One example is a study on a project called GenScope, an inquiry-based science software application, which found that students using the GenScope software showed significant gains over the control groups, with the largest gains shown in students from basic courses.
Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research.

McMaster University Medical School

Michael G. DeGroote School of MedicinePopulation Health Research InstituteFaculty of Medicine
Several medical schools have incorporated problem-based learning into their curricula following the lead of McMaster University Medical School, using real patient cases to teach students how to think like a clinician.
Since its formation, the school invented the small-group, case-based learning curriculum which is now known as PBL or problem-based learning.

Aalborg University

University of AalborgAalborgAalborg Universitet
In collaboration with Aalborg University of Denmark, PBL was introduced at University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM).
In February 2007, the foundation of the UICEE Centre for Problem Based Learning (UCPBL) paid recognition to Aalborg University, which subsequently led to the appointment of AAU as UNESCO Chair in problem-based learning.

Republic Polytechnic

In Singapore, the most notable example of adopting PBL pedagogy in curriculum is Republic Polytechnic, the first polytechnic in Singapore to fully adopt PBL across all diploma courses.
Founded in 2002, it was the first school system in Singapore to use the problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogy for all its diploma programmes.

Maastricht University

University of MaastrichtUniversiteit MaastrichtUniversity of Limburg
Maastricht University offers its whole program in PBL format only, as does St. George's University of London, another pioneer in the PBL format.
The newly established school chose not to await official recognition but to start its educational programme in September 1974, adopting an innovative approach to academic education in the form of problem-based learning.

Active learning

activeactive approachActive Processing
It is student-focused, which allows for active learning and better understanding and retention of knowledge.
In "Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research", Prince (2004) found that "there is broad but uneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative,cooperative and problem-based learning" in engineering education.

Constructivism (philosophy of education)

constructivismconstructivistConstructivism (learning theory)
P 5 BL mentoring is a structured activity that involves situated learning and constructivist learning strategies to foster the culture of practice that would extend beyond the university campus to real life.
Hmelo-Silver, Duncan, & Chinn cite several studies supporting the success of the constructivist problem-based and inquiry learning methods.

Gadjah Mada University

Universitas Gadjah MadaGajah Mada UniversityUniversity of Gadjah Mada
In 2002, Gadjah Mada University of Yogyakarta, Indonesia began offering an International Medicine program based on problem-based learning.
The programme is designed around a problem based learning approach, making use of small study groups.

Libyan International Medical University

In 2009, Libyan International Medical University of Benghazi, Libya started using PBL for all of its medical programmes.
The teaching policy emulates those of many established universities and is mainly problem-based learning.

Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine

LECOMLake Erie COMLECOM at Seton Hill
Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) offers a PBL pathway at the main campus in Erie, Pennsylvania.
The medical school offers three primary learning pathways: a traditional lecture discussion Program, a problem-based learning program, and a directed study program, as well as two, three-year programs, all leading to the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree.

Engineering education

engineering collegeengineering schoolCollege of Engineering
The use of PBL has expanded from its initial introduction into medical school programs to include education in the areas of other health sciences, math, law, education, economics, business, social studies, and engineering.

Western University College of Veterinary Medicine

College of Veterinary MedicineWestern University of Health Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine
In 1998, Western University of Health Sciences opened its College of Veterinary Medicine, with curriculum based completely on PBL.
The College of Veterinary Medicine has an entirely problem-based curriculum, rather than lecture-based.

Sulaiman Al Rajhi Colleges

Sulaiman Al Rajhi Colleges.
In 2008 Aljouf University of Sakakah, Saudi Arabia and Alfaisal University [Riyadh], [Saudi Arabia]and Sulaiman Al Rajhi Colleges[Qassim],[Saudi Arabia] started using PBL for all of their medical programmes.
therefore students enrolled at Sulaiman Al Rajhi Colleges will be taught using the education methodology of problem-based learning (PBL).

Discovery learning

Discovering learningdiscovery based learningdiscovery-based teaching techniques
It is also referred to as problem-based learning, experiential learning and 21st century learning.

Project-based learning

Project Based Learningproject-basedprojects
Problem-based learning is a similar pedagogic approach, however, problem-based approaches structure students' activities more by asking them to solve specific (open-ended) problems rather than relying on students to come up with their own problems in the course of completing a project.

Phenomenon-based learning

It can be a used as part of teacher-centered passive learning although in practice it is used more in student-centered active learning environments, including inquiry-based learning, problem-based learning, or project-based learning.

21st century skills

The classification or grouping has been undertaken to encourage and promote pedagogies that facilitate deeper learning through both traditional instruction as well as active learning, project-based learning, problem based learning, and others.

Student-centred learning

student-centered learningstudent-centeredchild-centred
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material.

Pedagogy

pedagoguepedagogicalpedagogic
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
It is focused on the student's reflection and reasoning to construct their own learning.

Lecture

lectureslecturingGuest Lectures
PBL represents a paradigm shift from traditional teaching and learning philosophy, which is more often lecture-based.