Procedural sedation and analgesia

conscious sedationprocedural sedationconscious analgesiamild sedationmoderate sedationsedated
Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is a technique in which a sedating/dissociative medication is given, usually along with an analgesic medication, in order to perform non-surgical procedures on a patient.wikipedia
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Propofol

Diprivan2,6-diisopropylphenolMilk of amnesia
Propofol is a non-barbiturate derivative that is thought to act by stimulating inhibitory GABA receptors and blocking excitatory NMDA receptors.
Its uses include the starting and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation.

Midazolam

VersedDormicumMidazolam hydrochloride
Midazolam is a benzodiazepine that acts by stimulating inhibitory GABA receptors.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

Etomidate

Amidate
Etomidate is an imidazole derivative, commonly used for the induction of general anesthesia.
It is used for conscious sedation and as a part of a rapid sequence induction to induce anaesthesia.

Tracheal intubation

endotracheal intubationintubationintubated
Airway protective reflexes are not compromised by this process and therefore endotracheal intubation is not required.

Abscess

abscessespustularCutaneous abscess

Cardioversion

direct current cardioversionElectrical cardioversionsynchronized cardioversion

Transesophageal echocardiogram

transesophageal echocardiographytransoesophageal echocardiogramechocardiography, transesophageal

NMDA receptor

NMDANMDARNMDA receptors
Propofol is a non-barbiturate derivative that is thought to act by stimulating inhibitory GABA receptors and blocking excitatory NMDA receptors.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
Midazolam is a benzodiazepine that acts by stimulating inhibitory GABA receptors.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Ketamine is a dissociative sedative, meaning it takes the patient into a dream-like level of consciousness.

Dexmedetomidine

DexdorPrecedexSileo
Dexmedetomidine is a more recent agent used in this process.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Opioids are used to suppress pain by acting on various opioid receptors, primarily Mu, in within the nervous system.

Opioid epidemic

opioid crisis2018 opioid crisisa drug crisis in the city and surrounding county
They have addictive properties and have led to the opioid epidemic.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
*Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid, 75-125 times stronger than morphine, that acts by activating opioid receptors in the nervous system.

Medical history

medical historianhistorycase history
In addition to pre-assessment, the patients medical history should be taken with special attention to history of anaesthesia.

ASA physical status classification system

ASA physical statusASA scoreAmerican Society of Anesthesiologists (physical status class)
These things contribute to the ASA physical status classification system.

Informed consent

consentPrior Informed Consentconsensual
Furthermore, before a trained professional performs PSA an Informed consent should be completed.

Mallampati score

Therefore, the caregiver should perform an airway exam that includes a Mallampati score, mouth opening assessment, and Thyromental distance.

Thyromental distance

Therefore, the caregiver should perform an airway exam that includes a Mallampati score, mouth opening assessment, and Thyromental distance.

Laryngoscopy

laryngoscopeindirect laryngoscopyvideo laryngoscopes
These includes things like a Glidescope, fiberscope optic, and an intubating Laryngeal mask airway.

Laryngeal mask airway

laryngeal maskslaryngeal maskLMA
These includes things like a Glidescope, fiberscope optic, and an intubating Laryngeal mask airway.

Oxygen saturation

dissolved oxygenblood oxygen saturationcentral venous oxygen saturation
This happens well before a drop in oxygen saturation.