Professionalization

professionalisationprofessionalizedprofessionalizeprofessionalizingconversion of free human interactions into paid servicesprofessionprofessionalised
Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true "profession of the highest integrity and competence." The definition of what constitutes a profession is often contested.wikipedia
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Semiprofession

semi-Pro
Occupations not fully professionalized are sometimes called semiprofessions.
In most semiprofessional fields, efforts at professionalization are ongoing.

Profession

professionsoccupationprofessed
Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true "profession of the highest integrity and competence." The professionalization process tends to establish the group norms of conduct and qualification of members of a profession and tends also to insist that members of the profession achieve "conformity to the norm."

Occupational closure

It is also likely to create "occupational closure", closing the profession to entry from outsiders, amateurs and the unqualified.

Professional association

professional organizationprofessional bodyprofessional society
Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification). and abide more or less strictly with the established procedures and any agreed code of conduct, which is policed by professional bodies, for "accreditation assures conformity to general expectations of the profession."
The USA has often led the transformation of various occupations into professions, a process described in the academic literature as professionalization.

Tradesman

tradesmenVocationaltradesperson
Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true "profession of the highest integrity and competence."

Best practice

best practicesbest management practicesbest practice exchange
Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification).

Professional certification

professional qualificationcertificationqualification
Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification). The professionalization process tends to establish the group norms of conduct and qualification of members of a profession and tends also to insist that members of the profession achieve "conformity to the norm."

Perverse incentive

perverse incentivesincentiveperverse
Critique of professionalization views overzealous versions driven by perverse incentives (essentially, a modern analogue of the negative aspects of guilds) as a form of credentialism.

Guild

guildscraft guildtrade guild
Critique of professionalization views overzealous versions driven by perverse incentives (essentially, a modern analogue of the negative aspects of guilds) as a form of credentialism.

Credentialism and educational inflation

CredentialismAcademic inflationCredential inflation
Critique of professionalization views overzealous versions driven by perverse incentives (essentially, a modern analogue of the negative aspects of guilds) as a form of credentialism.

Amateur

(a)amateurismdilettante
Professionalization tends to result in establishing acceptable qualifications, one or more professional associations to recommend best practice and to oversee the conduct of members of the profession, and some degree of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification).

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
It has also been defined as "excessive reliance on credentials, especially academic degrees, in determining hiring or promotion policies.".

Power (social and political)

powerpolitical powerpowers
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

World Bank high-income economy

High-income economyhigh-incomehigh-income countries
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

Social status

statussuccesssocial ladder
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

Social privilege

privilegeunderprivilegedprivileges
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

Elite

power eliteéliteelites
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

Social class

classsocial classesclasses
Professions also possess power, prestige, high income, high social status and privileges; their members soon come to comprise an elite class of people, cut off to some extent from the common people, and occupying an elevated station in society: "a narrow elite ... a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes."

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
The professionalization process tends to establish the group norms of conduct and qualification of members of a profession and tends also to insist that members of the profession achieve "conformity to the norm."

Conformity

conformconformistconformism
The professionalization process tends to establish the group norms of conduct and qualification of members of a profession and tends also to insist that members of the profession achieve "conformity to the norm."

Code of conduct

codes of conductcodesdiscipline and honour
and abide more or less strictly with the established procedures and any agreed code of conduct, which is policed by professional bodies, for "accreditation assures conformity to general expectations of the profession."

Adam Smith

SmithA SmithAdam Smith’s
Adam Smith expressed support for professionalization, as he believed that professionals made a worthwhile contribution to society.

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
Physicians started as a division of labor in health care.

Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
Physicians started as a division of labor in health care.