Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
The Awakening: "Votes for Women" in 1915 Puck magazine
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on 10 December 1916.
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Colorado judge Ben Lindsey, a pioneer in the establishment of juvenile court systems
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Glass works in Indiana, from a 1908 photograph by Lewis Hine
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Women's Suffrage Headquarters on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio in 1912
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
President Wilson used tariff, currency, and antitrust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working.
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
Newspaper reporting the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
A cartoon of Uncle Sam seated in restaurant looking at the bill of fare containing "Cuba steak", "Porto Rico pig", the "Philippine Islands" and the "Sandwich Islands" (Hawaii)
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Breaker boys sort coal in an anthracite coal breaker near South Pittston, Pennsylvania, 1911
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

Having assumed the presidency after McKinley's assassination, Roosevelt emerged as a leader of the Republican Party and became a driving force for anti-trust and Progressive policies.

- Theodore Roosevelt

The national political leaders included Republicans Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette, and Charles Evans Hughes, and Democrats William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith.

- Progressive Era
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

12 related topics

Alpha

James Bronson Reynolds, 1907

Federal Meat Inspection Act

American law that makes it illegal to adulterate or misbrand meat and meat products being sold as food, and ensures that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under strictly regulated sanitary conditions.

American law that makes it illegal to adulterate or misbrand meat and meat products being sold as food, and ensures that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under strictly regulated sanitary conditions.

James Bronson Reynolds, 1907

The law was partly a response to the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, an exposé of the Chicago meat packing industry, as well as to other Progressive Era muckraking publications of the day.

The book's assertions were confirmed in the Neill-Reynolds report, commissioned by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.

Upton Sinclair

American writer, muckraker, political activist and the 1934 Democratic Party nominee for Governor of California who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres.

American writer, muckraker, political activist and the 1934 Democratic Party nominee for Governor of California who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres.

Upton Sinclair early in his career
Upton Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the Rockefeller Building in New York City
Upton Sinclair in 1934
Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C.
Upton Sinclair selling the "Fig Leaf Edition" of his book Oil! (1927) in Boston. The book had drawn the ire of that town's infamous censors who objected to a brief sex scene that takes place in the novel.
President Lyndon B. Johnson greets Sinclair

Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of the industrialized United States from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of view.

At the time, President Theodore Roosevelt characterized Sinclair as a "crackpot", writing to William Allen White, "I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth."

McClure's (cover, January 1901) published many early muckraker articles.

Muckraker

McClure's (cover, January 1901) published many early muckraker articles.
Julius Chambers
Nellie Bly
A map from 1894 by W. T. Stead, pioneer journalist of the "new journalism", which paved the way for the modern tabloid.
Theodore Roosevelt

The muckrakers were reform-minded journalists, writers, and photographers in the Progressive Era in the United States (1890s–1920s) who claimed to expose corruption and wrongdoing in established institutions, often through sensationalist publications.

It became popular after President Theodore Roosevelt referred to the character in a 1906 speech; Roosevelt acknowledged that "the men with the muck rakes are often indispensable to the well being of society; but only if they know when to stop raking the muck."

William Jennings Bryan

American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

Bryan regained his stature in the party after Parker's resounding defeat by Theodore Roosevelt and voters from both parties increasingly embraced some of the progressive reforms that had long been championed by Bryan.

Since his death in 1925, Bryan has elicited mixed reactions from various commentators, but historians agree he was one of the most influential figures of the Progressive Era.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912

Progressivism in the United States

Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Political philosophy and reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century.

Women marching for the right to vote, 1912
"The Bosses of the Senate", a cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests–from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes and salt–as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate
A poster highlighting the situation of child labor in the United States in the early 20th century
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle exposed Americans to the horrors of the Chicago meatpacking plants.
Senator Bernie Sanders, an advocate of single-payer healthcare
Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez from New York, an advocate of action on climate change and author of the Green New Deal

Historians debate the exact contours, but they generally date the Progressive Era in response to the excesses of the Gilded Age from the 1890s to either World War I or the onset of the Great Depression.

Presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft supported trust-busting.

Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty's Dominions, title page of the first edition (1664)

Conservation movement

Political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resources, including animal, fungus, and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

Political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resources, including animal, fungus, and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty's Dominions, title page of the first edition (1664)
Schlich, in the middle of the seated row, with students from the forestry school at Oxford, on a visit to the forests of Saxony in the year 1892
F. V. Hayden's map of Yellowstone National Park, 1871
Roosevelt was a leader in conservation, fighting to end the waste of natural resources.
Theodore Roosevelt with trophy killing.
Figure 1. Costa Rica divided into different areas of conservation
A conservation area's sign in the Finnish forest. It says, "A conservation area protected by law".

Both conservationists and preservationists appeared in political debates during the Progressive Era (the 1890s–early 1920s).

President Roosevelt put conservationist issues high on the national agenda.

"The Bosses of the Senate", an 1889 political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests—from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes, and salt—as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate.

United States antitrust law

Collection of mostly federal laws that regulate the conduct and organization of businesses to promote competition and prevent unjustified monopolies.

Collection of mostly federal laws that regulate the conduct and organization of businesses to promote competition and prevent unjustified monopolies.

"The Bosses of the Senate", an 1889 political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests—from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes, and salt—as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate.
Standard Oil (Refinery No. 1 in Cleveland, Ohio, pictured) was a major company broken up under United States antitrust laws.
The printing equipment company ATF explicitly states in its 1923 manual that its goal is to 'discourage unhealthy competition' in the printing industry.
Since 1922 the courts and Congress have left Major League Baseball, as played at Chicago's Wrigley Field, unrestrained by antitrust laws.
Along with the Federal Trade Commission the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C. is the public enforcer of antitrust law.
Federal Trade Commission building, view from southeast

The rise of the Progressive Era prompted public officials to increase enforcement of the antitrust laws.

The Justice Department sued 45 companies under the Sherman Act during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1901–09) and 90 companies during the presidency of William Howard Taft (1909–13).

Henry George

American political economist and journalist.

American political economist and journalist.

Birthplace in Philadelphia
George in 1865, age 26
Portrait photo, taken shortly after writing Progress and Poverty
Campaigning for mayor in 1897, just before his death
George's funeral procession on Madison Avenue
Everybody works but the vacant lot.
Artist: George de Forest Brush, Sitter: Henry George, Date: 1888
Landlords Game board, based on Magie's 1924 US patent (no. 1,509,312).
The grave of Henry George, Green-Wood Cemetery
Artist depiction of funeral procession

His writing was immensely popular in 19th-century America and sparked several reform movements of the Progressive Era.

As the United Labor Party nominee in 1886 and in 1897 as the Jefferson Democracy Party nominee, he received 31 percent and 4 percent of the vote respectively and finished ahead of former New York State Assembly Minority Leader Theodore Roosevelt in the first race.

2016 presidential primary election ballots in Massachusetts

United States presidential primary

The presidential primary elections and caucuses held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States form part of the nominating process of candidates for United States presidential elections.

The presidential primary elections and caucuses held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States form part of the nominating process of candidates for United States presidential elections.

2016 presidential primary election ballots in Massachusetts
Voters checking in at a 2008 Washington State Democratic caucus held at the Nathan Eckstein Middle School in Seattle
A 2008 Washington state Democratic caucus held in the school lunchroom of Eckstein Middle School in Seattle. In some states like Washington, voters attend local meetings run by the parties instead of polling places to cast their selections.
A 2008 Democratic caucus meeting in Iowa City, Iowa. The Iowa caucuses are traditionally the first major electoral event of presidential primaries and caucuses.
The Balsams Grand Resort Hotel in Dixville Notch, New Hampshire, the site of the first "midnight vote" in the New Hampshire primary.

Progressive Era reformers looked to the primary election as a way to measure popular opinion of candidates, as opposed to the opinion of the bosses.

The primary received its first major test in the 1912 election pitting incumbent president William Howard Taft against challengers Theodore Roosevelt and Robert La Follette.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

Fourteen Points

Statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.

Statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
President Wilson tells George Washington that he destroys autocracy with his 14 points.
Wilson's Fourteen Points as the only way to peace for German government, American political cartoon, 1918.
Map of Wilsonian Armenia and Kurdistan. The borders decision was made by Wilson.
Wilson with his 14 points choosing between competing claims. Babies represent claims of the British, French, Italians, Polish, Russians, and enemy. American political cartoon, 1919.

The speech made by Wilson took many domestic progressive ideas and translated them into foreign policy (free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination).

Theodore Roosevelt, in a January 1919 article titled, "The League of Nations", published in Metropolitan Magazine, warned: "If the League of Nations is built on a document as high-sounding and as meaningless as the speech in which Mr. Wilson laid down his fourteen points, it will simply add one more scrap to the diplomatic waste paper basket. Most of these fourteen points... would be interpreted... to mean anything or nothing."