Clockwise from top:A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir

UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon

Korean refugees in front of a U.S. M46 Patton tank

U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon

F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
Leonard Hobhouse, one of the originators of social liberalism, notably through his book Liberalism, published in 1911.
Thomas Hill Green
Friedrich Naumann
Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, whose New Deal domestic policies defined American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century
David Lloyd George, who became closely associated with this new liberalism and vigorously supported expanding social welfare
British leaflet from the Liberal Party expressing support for the National Health Insurance Act of 1911 and the legislation provided benefits to sick and unemployed workers, marking a major milestone in the development of social welfare
Alexander Rüstow

Short-lived moderate left political party founded after the Korean War in South Korea under the leadership of Cho Bong-am.

- Progressive Party (South Korea, 1956)

South Korea: Progressive Party (1956), Uri Party, Grand Unified Democratic New Party

- Social liberalism

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Progressivism

Political philosophy in support of social reform.

Immanuel Kant
John Stuart Mill
Theodore Roosevelt
Woodrow Wilson

In modern politics, progressivism is generally considered part of the left-liberal tradition.

🇰🇷 South Korea: Progressive Party (1956), Democratic Labor Party

Modern liberalism in the United States

Percent of self-identified liberals by state in 2018, according to a Gallup poll:
Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way

Modern liberalism in the United States, often simply referred to in the United States as liberalism, is a form of social liberalism found in American politics.

Social democracy

Political, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports political and economic democracy.

A portrait highlighting the five leaders of early social democracy in Germany
Vladimir Lenin, one revolutionary social democrat who paved the way for the split between Communists and Social Democrats
Anthony Crosland, who argued that traditional capitalism had been reformed and modified almost out of existence by the social democratic welfare policy regime after World War II

Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the post-war consensus and their influence on socioeconomic policy in Northern and Western Europe, social democracy became associated with Keynesianism, the Nordic model, the social-liberal paradigm, and welfare states within political circles in the late 20th century.

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics (British English) or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, are political views that lean to the left-wing on the left–right political spectrum, but closer to the centre and corporatism than other left-wing politics.

The SPD is a social-democratic party in the centre-left political position in German politics.

Some variants of liberalism, especially social liberalism, are described as centre-left, but many social liberals are in the centre of the political spectrum as well.

Fiscal conservatism

Political and economic philosophy regarding fiscal policy and fiscal responsibility with an ideological basis in capitalism, individualism, limited government, and laissez-faire economics.

Herbert Hoover addresses a large crowd in his 1932 presidential campaign
Jimmy Carter, who reduced the debt-to-GDP ratio in the 1970s
Ronald Reagan spent the most of any recent President (Carter to Obama) as measured by annual average percentage of the GDP
This table shows that Bill Clinton's Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 which increased the average federal tax rates for the top 1% while lowering average tax rates for the middle class was followed by President Barack Obama starting in 2013 through the partial expiration of the Bush tax cuts and that both tax increases lowered deficits relative to Congressional Budget Office policy baselines without them
Comparison of annual federal deficits (CBO 10-year forecast from prior to inauguration vs. the actual amount) during the Obama and Bush presidencies showcasing how George W. Bush added far more to the debt relative to the CBO 2001 forecast than Obama added relative to the CBO 2009 forecast

The term has its origins in the era of the American New Deal during the 1930s as a result of the policies initiated by modern liberals, when many classical liberals started calling themselves conservatives as they did not wish to be identified with what was passing for liberalism in the United States.

Cultural liberalism

Social philosophy which expresses the social dimension of liberalism and favors the freedom of individuals to choose whether to conform to cultural norms.

John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) argued for the importance of freedom of speech

The United States refers cultural liberalism as social liberalism however, it is not the same as the broader political ideology known as social liberalism.

Classical liberalism

Political ideology and a branch of liberalism that advocates free market and laissez-faire economics; civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on limited government, economic freedom, and political freedom.

A meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League in Exeter Hall in 1846
John Locke
Adam Smith

Classical liberalism, contrary to liberal branches like social liberalism, looks more negatively on social policies, taxation and the state involvement in the lives of individuals, and it advocates deregulation.

Liberalism

Political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law.

John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) argued for the importance of freedom of speech
Madame de Staël
Benjamin Constant, a Franco-Swiss political activist and theorist
Thomas Hill Green, an influential liberal philosopher who established in Prolegomena to Ethics (1884) the first major foundations for what later became known as positive liberty and in a few years his ideas became the official policy of the Liberal Party in Britain, precipitating the rise of social liberalism and the modern welfare state
John Maynard Keynes, one of the most influential economists of modern times and whose ideas, which are still widely felt, formalized modern liberal economic policy
The Great Depression with its periods of worldwide economic hardship formed the backdrop against which Keynesian Revolution took place (the image is Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depiction of destitute pea-pickers in California, taken in March 1936)
Mary Wollstonecraft, widely regarded as the pioneer of liberal feminism
Sismondi, who wrote the first critique of the free market from a liberal perspective in 1819
John Stuart Mill, whose On Liberty greatly influenced the course of 19th century liberalism
Gustave de Molinari
Julius Faucher
John Locke, who was the first to develop a liberal philosophy, including the right to private property and the consent of the governed
Montesquieu, who argued for the government's separation of powers
The iconic painting Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix, a tableau of the July Revolution in 1830
As a liberal nationalist, K. J. Ståhlberg (1865–1952), the President of Finland, anchored the state in liberal democracy, guarded the fragile germ of the rule of law, and embarked on internal reforms.
January 1933 color photo of Franklin D. Roosevelt as the Man of the Year of Time
2017 Russian protests were organized by Russia's liberal opposition
Execution of José María de Torrijos y Uriarte and his men in 1831 as Spanish King Ferdinand VII took repressive measures against the liberal forces in his country
Raif Badawi, a Saudi Arabian writer and the creator of the website Free Saudi Liberals, who was sentenced to ten years in prison and 1,000 lashes for "insulting Islam" in 2014

In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply liberalism in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.

Economic liberalism

Political and economic ideology based on strong support for a free market economy based on individual lines and private property in the means of production.

Adam Smith was an early advocate for economic liberalism

Ordoliberalism and various schools of social liberalism based on classical liberalism include a broader role for the state, but they do not seek to replace private enterprise and the free market with public enterprise and economic planning.

Social market economy

Socioeconomic model combining a free-market capitalist economic system alongside social policies and enough regulation to establish both fair competition within the market and generally a welfare state.

Konrad Adenauer, a proponent of the social market economy

The social market economy was originally promoted and implemented in West Germany by the Christian Democratic Union under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in 1949 and today it is used by ordoliberals, social liberals and modern (non-Marxist) social democrats alike.