Prohibition of drugs
illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibitiondrug lawsdrugsillegal drugsdrugdrug lawillegalillicit substances
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.wikipedia
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drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Though the prohibition of illegal drugs was established under Sharia law, particularly against the use of hashish as a recreational drug, classical jurists of medieval Islamic jurisprudence accepted the use of hashish for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, and agreed that its "medical use, even if it leads to mental derangement, should remain exempt [from punishment]".
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
While the Konbaung Dynasty prohibited all intoxicants and stimulants during the reign of King Bodawpaya (1781–1819).
Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription (either legally or illicitly) as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs.
The cultivation, use, and trade of psychoactive and other drugs has occurred since ancient times.
Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition.
opium densopium houses
In the United States, the first drug law was passed in San Francisco in 1875, banning the smoking of opium in opium dens.
Despite this, the 1870s attracted many non-Chinese residents to San Francisco's dens, prompting the city fathers to enact the nation's first anti-drug law, an 1875 ordinance banning opium dens.
Home Office control was extended to include raw opium, morphine, cocaine, ecogonine and heroin.
Cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug globally, after cannabis.
recreational drugdrug usedrugs
Though the prohibition of illegal drugs was established under Sharia law, particularly against the use of hashish as a recreational drug, classical jurists of medieval Islamic jurisprudence accepted the use of hashish for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, and agreed that its "medical use, even if it leads to mental derangement, should remain exempt [from punishment]". The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.
Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances.
drugs policydrugdrug policies
Support at an international level for the prohibition of psychoactive drug use became a consistent feature of United States policy during both Republican and Democratic administrations, to such an extent that US support for foreign governments has often been contingent on their adherence to US drug policy.
Demand reduction measures include prohibition, fines for drug offenses, incarceration for persons convicted for drug offenses, treatment (such as voluntary rehabilitation, coercive care, or supply on medical prescription for drug abusers), awareness campaigns, community social services, and support for families.
For instance, there is a movement for cannabis legalization in Canada, as well as the Marijuana Party of Canada.
The Marijuana Party (Parti Marijuana) is a Canadian federal political party, whose agenda focuses on ending the prohibition of cannabis.
sumptuary lawssumptuarysumptuary tax
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.
Policies to which the term has been critically applied include alcohol prohibition, drug prohibition, smoking bans, and restrictions on dog fighting.
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule IUN conventions
Major milestones in this campaign include the introduction of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances in 1971 and the [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]] in 1988.
Organic states group: As producers of the organic raw materials for most of the global drug supply, these countries had been the traditional focus of international drug control efforts. They were open to socio-cultural drug use, having lived with it for centuries. While India, Turkey, Pakistan and Burma took the lead, the group also included the coca-producing states of Indonesia and the Andean region of South America, the opium- and cannabis-producing countries of South and Southeast Asia, and the cannabis-producing states in the Horn of Africa. They favored weak controls because existing restrictions on production and export had directly affected large segments of their domestic population and industry. They supported national control efforts based on local conditions and were wary of strong international control bodies under the UN. Although essentially powerless to fight the prohibition philosophy directly, they effectively forced a compromise by working together to dilute the treaty language with exceptions, loopholes and deferrals. They also sought development aid to compensate for losses caused by strict controls.
These changing attitudes led to the founding of the International Opium Commission in 1909.
The International Opium Commission was a meeting convened in February 1 to February 26, 1909 in Shanghai that represented one of the first steps toward international drug prohibition.
opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Home Office control was extended to include raw opium, morphine, cocaine, ecogonine and heroin. In late Qing Imperial China, opium imported by the British East India Company was consumed by all social classes in Southern China.
Opium was prohibited in many countries during the early 20th century, leading to the modern pattern of opium production as a precursor for illegal recreational drugs or tightly regulated legal prescription drugs.
A major campaign against hashish-eating Sufis was conducted in Egypt in the 11th and 12th centuries resulting among other things in the burning of fields of cannabis.
It is the most commonly used illegal drug both in the world and the United States.
These include the United States (1920–1933), Finland (1919–1932), Norway (1916–1927), Canada (1901–1948), Iceland (1915–1922) and the Russian Empire/USSR (1914–1925).
The active ingredient, ibogaine, is proposed as a treatment of opioid withdrawal and various substance use disorders.
Its prohibition in other countries has slowed scientific research.
Prohibition of drugs is supported by proponents of conservative values but also by many other types of NGO's that are not linked to conservative political parties.
Social conservatives (in the first meaning of the word) in many countries generally favour the pro-life position in the abortion controversy and oppose human embryonic stem cell research (particularly if publicly funded); oppose both eugenics and human enhancement (transhumanism) while supporting bioconservatism; support a traditional definition of marriage as being one man and one woman; view the nuclear family model as society's foundational unit; oppose expansion of civil marriage and child adoption to couples in same-sex relationships; promote public morality and traditional family values; oppose atheism, especially militant atheism, secularism and the separation of church and state; support the prohibition of drugs, prostitution and euthanasia; and support the censorship of pornography and what they consider to be obscenity or indecency.
hallucinogens such as LSD, mescaline, peyote, and psilocybin
Possession of psilocybin-containing mushrooms has been outlawed in most countries, and it has been classified as a scheduled drug by many national drug laws.
prohibition of alcoholalcohol prohibitiondry
In the early 20th century, many countries had alcohol prohibition.
counter-narcoticsdrug interdictiondrug war
In the 20th century, the United States led a major renewed surge in drug prohibition called the "War on Drugs".
The war on drugs is a campaign, led by the U.S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade in the United States.
criticismdrug legalisationeffectiveness of such policies is debated
Arguments for and against drug prohibition
Arguments about the prohibition of drugs, and over drug policy reform, are subjects of considerable controversy.
drug legalizationlegalization of drugsdrug decriminalization
In the 2010s, movements have grown around the world proposing the relegalization and decriminalization of drugs.
Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws.
In the U.S., the War on Drugs is thought to be contributing to a prison overcrowding problem.
Studies have shown that the majority of prison sentences are handed to two types of offenders: drug offenders and recidivists.
The role of the Commission was passed to the League of Nations, and all signatory nations agreed to prohibit the import, sale, distribution, export, and use of all narcotic drugs, except for medical and scientific purposes.
Prohibition of drugs
Harrison Narcotic ActHarrison Actcriminalizing the sale of opiates and cocaine
In the USA, the Harrison Act was passed in 1914, and required sellers of opiates and cocaine to get a license.
Prohibition of drugs
Drug policy of the Soviet Union
Policies were focused on prohibition and criminalisation, rather than more liberal policies such as harm reduction and the rehabilitation of users and addicts.