Projectile

projectileskinetic kill vehiclekinetic projectilehit-to-killkinetic warheadmissilemissilesballKinetic energy per unit mass of projectileskinetic kill
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.wikipedia
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Ranged weapon

rangedranged weaponsprojectile weapon
Although any object in motion through space (for example a thrown baseball) may be called a projectile, the term more commonly refers to a ranged weapon.
It is sometimes also called projectile weapon or missile weapon because it typically works by launching projectiles, though technically a directed-energy weapon (which does not involve projectiles) is also a ranged weapon.

Air gun

air rifleair pistolairgun
Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions.
An air gun (or airgun) is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which pressurizes gases chemically via an exothermic oxidation of combustible propellants which generates propulsive energy by breaking molecular bonds.

Gun

gunsgunnery officerfirearms
Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions.
A gun is a ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge solid projectiles but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser guns, spearguns and harpoon guns).

Blowgun

blowpipeblow gunblowpipe darts
Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions.
A blowgun (also called a blowpipe or blow tube) is a simple ranged weapon consisting of a long narrow tube for shooting light projectiles such as darts.

Force

forcesattractiveelastic force
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
This theory, based on the everyday experience of how objects move, such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving, had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles, such as the flight of arrows.

Railgun

railgunselectromagnetic railgunrail gun
Railguns utilize electromagnetic fields to provide a constant acceleration along the entire length of the device, greatly increasing the muzzle velocity. Among projectiles that do not contain explosives are those launched from railguns, coilguns, and mass drivers, as well as kinetic energy penetrators.
As of 2018, railguns have been researched as weapons utilising electromagnetic forces to impart a very high kinetic energy to a projectile (e.g. APFSDS) rather than using conventional propellants.

Trajectory

trajectoriesflightpathflight path
Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory.
In classical mechanics, the mass might be a projectile or a satellite.

Muzzle velocity

muzzle velocitiesvelocitybullet speed
Railguns utilize electromagnetic fields to provide a constant acceleration along the entire length of the device, greatly increasing the muzzle velocity. All of these weapons work by attaining a high muzzle velocity, or initial velocity, generally up to (hypervelocity), and collide with their targets, converting their kinetic energy into destructive shock waves and heat.
Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the end of a firearm (i.e. the muzzle).

Shell (projectile)

shellshellsartillery shell
Many projectiles, e.g. shells, may carry an explosive charge or another chemical or biological substance.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.

Equations of motion

equation of motionUniformly accelerated motionSUVAT equations
Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory.
Elementary and frequent examples in kinematics involve projectiles, for example a ball thrown upwards into the air.

Round shot

cannonballsolid shotcannonballs
Typical kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles such as rocks and round shots, pointed ones such as arrows, and somewhat pointed ones such as bullets.
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.

Bullet

bulletsLeadammunition
Typical kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles such as rocks and round shots, pointed ones such as arrows, and somewhat pointed ones such as bullets.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.

Arrow

arrowsnockNock (arrow)
Typical kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles such as rocks and round shots, pointed ones such as arrows, and somewhat pointed ones such as bullets.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called the nock for engaging the bowstring.

Coilgun

coil gunGauss gunGauss rifle
Among projectiles that do not contain explosives are those launched from railguns, coilguns, and mass drivers, as well as kinetic energy penetrators.
A coilgun or Gauss rifle is a type of projectile accelerator consisting of one or more coils used as electromagnets in the configuration of a linear motor that accelerate a ferromagnetic or conducting projectile to high velocity.

Anti-ballistic missile

ABManti-ballisticantiballistic missile
Some kinetic weapons for targeting objects in spaceflight are anti-satellite weapons and anti-ballistic missiles.
The test was exoatmospheric and done in midcourse phase and with a kinetic kill vehicle.

Hypervelocity

hypervelocity impacthypervelocitiesvelocity
All of these weapons work by attaining a high muzzle velocity, or initial velocity, generally up to (hypervelocity), and collide with their targets, converting their kinetic energy into destructive shock waves and heat.
This is especially relevant in the field of space exploration and military use of space, where hypervelocity impacts (e.g. by space debris or an attacking projectile) can result in anything from minor component degradation to the complete destruction of a spacecraft or missile.

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense

THAADTerminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System
With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 have explosives, while the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, used in Aegis BMDS), and THAAD do not (see Missile Defense Agency).
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense, is an American anti-ballistic missile defense system designed to shoot down short-, medium-, and intermediate-range ballistic missiles in their terminal phase (descent or reentry) by intercepting with a hit-to-kill approach.

Kinetic bombardment

Rods from Godkinetic weaponkinetic bombardment platform
A kinetic bombardment may involve a projectile dropped from Earth orbit.
A kinetic bombardment or a kinetic orbital strike is the hypothetical act of attacking a planetary surface with an inert projectile, where the destructive force comes from the kinetic energy of the projectile impacting at very high speeds.

Collision

collisionscollidecolliding
All of these weapons work by attaining a high muzzle velocity, or initial velocity, generally up to (hypervelocity), and collide with their targets, converting their kinetic energy into destructive shock waves and heat.
With time reversed we have the situation of two objects pushed away from each other, e.g. shooting a projectile, or a rocket applying thrust (compare the derivation of the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation).

Missile

guided missilemissilesguided missiles
In military terminology, a rocket is unguided, while a missile is guided.
In the case of a large closing speed, a projectile without explosives is used; just a collision is sufficient to destroy the target.

Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile

LEAPLightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP)
With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 have explosives, while the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, used in Aegis BMDS), and THAAD do not (see Missile Defense Agency).
The Lightweight Exo-atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) is a lightweight miniaturized kinetic kill vehicle designed to destroy incoming ballistic missiles both inside or outside the Earth's atmosphere.

Harpoon

harpoonsharpoonerHarpoon Gun
It accomplishes this task by impaling the target animal and securing it with barb or toggling claws, allowing the fishermen to use a rope or chain attached to the projectile to catch the animal.

Crossbow

crossbowscross-bowcranequin
It shoots arrow-like projectiles called bolts or quarrels.

Kinetic Energy Interceptor

KEI
With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 have explosives, while the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, used in Aegis BMDS), and THAAD do not (see Missile Defense Agency).
The KEI consisted of the Interceptor Component (kinetic projectile), the Mobile Launcher Component, and the Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications (C2BMC) component.

MIM-104 Patriot

PatriotPatriot missilePatriot missiles
With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 have explosives, while the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, used in Aegis BMDS), and THAAD do not (see Missile Defense Agency). Some hit-to-kill warheads are additionally equipped with an explosive directional warhead to enhance the kill probability (e.g. Israeli Arrow missile or U.S. Patriot PAC-3).
The active radar also gives the warhead a "hit-to-kill" (kinetic kill vehicle) capability that completely eliminates the need for a traditional proximity-fused warhead.