Promoter (genetics)

promoterpromoterspromoter regiongene promotergene promoterspromoter regionscore promoterpromoter sequencePromoter (biology)promoter elements
[[File:Lac Operon.svg|thumb|250px|1: RNA Polymerase, 2: Repressor, 3: Promoter, 4: Operator, 5: Lactose, 6: lacZ, 7: lacY, 8: lacA.wikipedia
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RNA polymerase

DNA-dependent RNA polymeraseRNAPRNA polymerases
There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase.
A transcription factor and its associated transcription mediator complex must be attached to a DNA binding site called a promoter region before RNAP can initiate the DNA unwinding at that position.

Repressor

repressionrepressorsrepressor protein
There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase. These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression.
A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA.

Response element

response elementsDNA response element
Promoters contain specific DNA sequences such as response elements that provide a secure initial binding site for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase.
Response elements are short sequences of DNA within a gene promoter or enhancer region that are able to bind specific transcription factors and regulate transcription of genes.

Insulator (genetics)

insulatorinsulatorschromatin insulator
Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene.
Found in multicellular eukaryotes and working over distances from the promoter element of the target gene, an insulator is typically 300 bp to 2000 bp in length.

Enhancer (genetics)

enhancerenhancersgene enhancer
Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene.
In eukaryotic cells the structure of the chromatin complex of DNA is folded in a way that functionally mimics the supercoiled state characteristic of prokaryotic DNA, so although the enhancer DNA may be far from the gene in a linear way, it is spatially close to the promoter and gene.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that leads to initiation of transcription of a particular gene.
In biology, parts of the DNA double helix that need to separate easily, such as the TATAAT Pribnow box in some promoters, tend to have a high AT content, making the strands easier to pull apart.

Silencer (genetics)

silencerssilencersilencer elements, transcriptional
Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene.
Certain silencers can be found downstream of a promoter located within the intron or exon of the gene itself.

TATA box

TATATATA-boxmammalian C-type LTR TATA box
Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAAA), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP); and a B recognition element (BRE), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TFIIB.
In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes.

Activator (genetics)

activatortranscriptional activatoractivators
These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression.
Most activators are DNA-binding proteins that bind to enhancers or promoter-proximal elements.

RNA polymerase II

RNA pol IIIIpolymerase II
It has been hypothesized that the recruitment and initiation of RNA polymerase II usually begins bidirectionally, but divergent transcription is halted at a checkpoint later during elongation.
A wide range of transcription factors are required for it to bind to upstream gene promoters and begin transcription.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that leads to initiation of transcription of a particular gene. In bacteria, the promoter contains two short sequence elements approximately 10 (Pribnow Box) and 35 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site.
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex".

B recognition element

BRETFB-recognition elements
Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAAA), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP); and a B recognition element (BRE), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TFIIB.
The B recognition element (BRE) is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of most genes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

General transcription factor

transcription factorsbasal transcriptionbasal transcription factor
Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAAA), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP); and a B recognition element (BRE), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TFIIB.
General transcription factors (GTFs), also known as basal transcriptional factors, are a class of protein transcription factors that bind to specific sites (promoter) on DNA to activate transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA.

Sigma factor

RpoHsigmaRNA polymerase sigma factor σ A
The above promoter sequences are recognized only by RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing sigma-70.
It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to gene promoters.

TATA-binding protein

TATA binding proteinTBPTATA-box binding protein
Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAAA), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP); and a B recognition element (BRE), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TFIIB.
This DNA sequence is found about 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site in some eukaryotic gene promoters.

Ribosomal RNA

rRNAribosomalrRNAs
The P1 promoter is specifically responsible for regulating rRNA synthesis during moderate to high bacterial growth rates.

Pribnow box

In bacteria, the promoter contains two short sequence elements approximately 10 (Pribnow Box) and 35 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site.
The Pribnow box (also known as the Pribnow-Schaller box) is the sequence TATAAT of six nucleotides (thymine, adenine, thymine, etc.) that is an essential part of a promoter site on DNA for transcription to occur in bacteria.

Transcription factor II B

TFIIBGTF2Bgeneral transcription factor II-1
Eukaryotic RNA-polymerase-II-dependent promoters can contain a TATA element (consensus sequence TATAAA), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TATA-binding protein (TBP); and a B recognition element (BRE), which is recognized by the general transcription factor TFIIB.
It was originally thought to be essential at all promoters in order to recruit RNA polymerase II and initiate transcription; however, recent research has shown that a depletion in TFIIB is not lethal to cells and transcription levels are not significantly affected.

MicroRNA

miRNAmicroRNAsmiRNAs
CpG islands also occur frequently in promoters for functional noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs.
miRNAs occasionally also cause histone modification and DNA methylation of promoter sites, which affects the expression of target genes.

Housekeeping gene

housekeepingDNA housekeepinghousekeeping functions
Many basic housekeeping and cellular metabolic genes are regulated by bidirectional promoters.
In Drosophila, where promoter specific CpG Islands are absent, housekeeping gene promoters contain DNA elements like DRE, E-box or DPE.

E-box

E boxE-box binding factorsE-box element
An example is the E-box (sequence CACGTG), which binds transcription factors in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family (e.g. BMAL1-Clock, cMyc).
A splice-variant of the E2-2 was discovered in 1997 and was found to inhibit the promoter of a muscle-specific gene.

RNA polymerase I

IPol IRNAP I
When rRNA synthesis is stimulated, SL1 (selectivity factor 1) will bind to the promoters of rDNA genes that were previously silent, and recruit a pre-initiation complex to which Pol I will bind and start transcription of rRNA.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that leads to initiation of transcription of a particular gene.
First, genes require a promoter sequence.

CAAT box

CCAAT boxCAATCAT box
CCAAT boxes are common, as they are in many promoters that lack TATA boxes.
Both of these consensus sequences belong to the regulatory promoter.