Propeller (aeronautics)

The propellers of a C-130J Super Hercules military transport aircraft
A decorated Japanese taketombo bamboo-copter
Leonardo's aerial screw
Prototype created by Mikhail Lomonosov, 1754
A 6-bladed Hamilton Standard 568F propeller on an ATR 72 short-haul airliner
A sailor checks the propeller of a Landing Craft Air Cushion hovercraft
Cut-away view of a Hamilton Standard propeller. This type of constant-speed propeller was used on many American fighters, bombers and transport aircraft of World War II
Feathered propeller on the outboard TP400 turboprop of an Airbus A400M
Counter-rotating propellers

Airscrew, converts rotary motion from an engine or other power source into a swirling slipstream which pushes the propeller forwards or backwards.

- Propeller (aeronautics)
The propellers of a C-130J Super Hercules military transport aircraft

17 related topics

Alpha

GE T64 turboprop, with the propeller on the left, the gearbox with accessories in the middle, and the gas generator (turbine) on the right

Turboprop

GE T64 turboprop, with the propeller on the left, the gearbox with accessories in the middle, and the gas generator (turbine) on the right
Schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine
Propulsive efficiency comparison for various gas turbine engine configurations
A Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent on a test rig at Hucknall, in March 1945
The Kuznetsov NK-12 is still the most powerful turboprop
A military transport aircraft, over 2,500 Lockheed C-130 Hercules have been built
The Beech King Air and Super King Air are the most-delivered turboprop business aircraft, with a combined 7,300 examples as of May 2018

A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.

A mockup of the GE36 at the Musée aéronautique et spatial Safran

Propfan

Open rotor engine, or unducted fan , is a type of aircraft engine related in concept to both the turboprop and turbofan, but distinct from both.

Open rotor engine, or unducted fan , is a type of aircraft engine related in concept to both the turboprop and turbofan, but distinct from both.

A mockup of the GE36 at the Musée aéronautique et spatial Safran
Propulsive efficiency comparison for various gas turbine engine configurations
Ground–test installation of the Allison 501-M78 engine with an eight-bladed, 108 in diameter Hamilton Standard propeller for the NASA Propfan Test Assessment.
The GE36 on a McDonnell Douglas MD-80 demonstrator at the 1988 Farnborough Air Show. The gearless unducted fan engine had an overall diameter of 11.67 ft, with either eight or ten blades in front (depending on the particular configuration) and eight blades in back.
The PW–Allison 578-DX engine installed on the same MD-80 testbed. The contra-rotating, geared propfan engine is 11.6 ft in diameter, with six blades in front and six blades in back.
The Progress D-236 propfan engine on the Yak-42E-LL testbed aircraft at the Paris Air Show in 1991.
Progress D27 Propfans fitted to an Antonov An-70.
Safran open rotor mockup in 2017.
Swept propeller
A comparison of the propfan with other types of aircraft engines.

The engine uses a gas turbine to drive an unshrouded (open) contra-rotating propeller like a turboprop, but the design of the propeller itself is more tightly coupled to the turbine design, and the two are certified as a single unit.

Contra-rotating propellers

Contra-rotating propellers

Contra-rotating propellers
Contra-rotating propellers on the Rolls-Royce Griffon-powered P-51XR Mustang Precious Metal at the 2014 Reno Air Races
Contra-rotating propellers of a Spitfire Mk XIX
One of the four contra-rotating propellers on a Tu-95 Russian strategic bomber
XB-35 Flying Wing showing its quartet of pusher contra-rotating propellers. The option was later discarded due to severe vibration in flight and later changed to traditional single rotating propellers.
Douglas XB-42 Mixmaster
General Motors P-75 Eagle

Aircraft equipped with contra-rotating propellers, also referred to as CRP, coaxial contra-rotating propellers, or high-speed propellers, apply the maximum power of usually a single piston or turboprop engine to drive a pair of coaxial propellers in contra-rotation.

A swept wing KC-10 Extender (top) refuels a trapezoidal-wing F-22 Raptor.

Wing

Type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid.

Type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid.

A swept wing KC-10 Extender (top) refuels a trapezoidal-wing F-22 Raptor.
A white stork flying by flapping its wings.
Condensation in the low pressure region over the wing of an Airbus A340, passing through humid air
Flaps (green) are used in various configurations to increase the wing area and to increase the lift. In conjunction with spoilers (red), flaps maximize drag and minimize lift during the landing roll.
The wing of a landing BMI Airbus A319-100. The slats at its leading edge and the flaps at its trailing edge are extended.
Winged tree seeds that cause autorotation in descent
A laughing gull, exhibiting the "gull wing" outline
Bat in flight

An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

Examples of airfoils in nature and in or on various vehicles. The dolphin flipper at bottom left obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium; it is an example of a hydrofoil.

Airfoil

Examples of airfoils in nature and in or on various vehicles. The dolphin flipper at bottom left obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium; it is an example of a hydrofoil.
Streamlines around a NACA 0012 airfoil at moderate angle of attack
Lift and drag curves for a typical airfoil
Airfoil nomenclature
Different definitions of airfoil thickness
An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL)
An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991.
Airfoil of a Kamov Ka-26 helicopter's lower rotor blade

An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the cross-sectional shape of an object whose motion through a gas is capable of generating significant lift, such as a wing, a sail, or the blades of propeller, rotor, or turbine.

One of a C-130J Super Hercules's six-bladed Dowty Rotol R391 composite controllable- and reversible-pitch propellers.

Variable-pitch propeller (aeronautics)

One of a C-130J Super Hercules's six-bladed Dowty Rotol R391 composite controllable- and reversible-pitch propellers.
A hydraulic constant-speed propeller on a Rotax 912S engine in a Dyn'Aéro MCR01 Microlight aircraft.
Cutaway constant-speed propeller hub
Pitch-change forces on a constant speed propeller.
Propeller governor PCU5000, made by Jihostroj a.s. company, fitted to an American Champion aircraft
A Hamilton Standard variable-pitch propeller on a 1943 model Stinson V77 Reliant

In aeronautics, a variable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller (airscrew) with blades that can be rotated around their long axis to change the blade pitch.

A propeller blade in feathered position

Blade pitch

Blade pitch or simply pitch refers to the angle of a blade in a fluid.

Blade pitch or simply pitch refers to the angle of a blade in a fluid.

A propeller blade in feathered position
Decommissioned wind turbines of the Kama'oa Wind Farm in Ka Lae/South Point, Hawaii awaiting removal, with rotors stopped and blades feathered.

In aeronautics, blade pitch refers to the angle of the blades of an aircraft propeller or helicopter rotor.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine being tested. This engine produces a jet of gas to generate thrust. Its purpose is to propel a jet airplane. This particular model turbofan engine powers McDonnell Douglas F-15 and General Dynamics F-16 fighters both.

Thrust

Reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

Reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine being tested. This engine produces a jet of gas to generate thrust. Its purpose is to propel a jet airplane. This particular model turbofan engine powers McDonnell Douglas F-15 and General Dynamics F-16 fighters both.

This can be done by different means such as the spinning blades of a propeller, the propelling jet of a jet engine, or by ejecting hot gases from a rocket engine.

Swept propeller

Scimitar propeller

A scimitar propeller has blades shaped like a scimitar sword, with increasing sweep along the leading edge.

A scimitar propeller has blades shaped like a scimitar sword, with increasing sweep along the leading edge.

Swept propeller
Scimitar propeller on a 1926 Alexander Eaglerock
Eight-blade scimitar propellers on the Airbus A400M Atlas
Progress propfan on the Antonov An-70

Typically scimitar propellers are constructed of lightweight or composite materials.

Bell X-22

Ducted fan

Bell X-22
Ducted fans on an airship or dirigible
A Sailor checks the ducted propeller of a Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) Hovercraft
The Martin Jetpack, a personal aircraft powered by ducted fans

In aeronautics, a ducted fan is a thrust-generating mechanical fan or propeller mounted within a cylindrical duct or shroud.