Propeller (aeronautics)

The propellers of a C-130J Super Hercules military transport aircraft
A decorated Japanese taketombo bamboo-copter
Leonardo's aerial screw
Prototype created by Mikhail Lomonosov, 1754
A 6-bladed Hamilton Standard 568F propeller on an ATR 72 short-haul airliner
A sailor checks the propeller of a Landing Craft Air Cushion hovercraft
Cut-away view of a Hamilton Standard propeller. This type of constant-speed propeller was used on many American fighters, bombers and transport aircraft of World War II
Feathered propeller on the outboard TP400 turboprop of an Airbus A400M
Counter-rotating propellers

Airscrew, converts rotary motion from an engine or other power source into a swirling slipstream which pushes the propeller forwards or backwards.

- Propeller (aeronautics)
The propellers of a C-130J Super Hercules military transport aircraft

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A black carbon fibre (used as a reinforcement component) compared to a human hair

Composite material

Material which is produced from two or more constituent materials.

Material which is produced from two or more constituent materials.

A black carbon fibre (used as a reinforcement component) compared to a human hair
Composites are formed by combining materials together to form an overall structure with properties that differ from that of the individual components
Concrete is a mixture of adhesive and aggregate, giving a robust, strong material that is very widely used.
Plywood is used widely in construction
Composite sandwich structure panel used for testing at NASA
Carbon fibre composite part.
Plot of the overall strength of a composite material as a function of fiber volume fraction limited by the upper bound (isostrain) and lower bound (isostress) conditions.
Figure a) shows the isostress condition where the composite materials are perpendicular to the applied force and b) is the isostrain condition that has the layers parallel to the force.
The graph depicts the three fracture modes a composite material may experience depending on the angle of misorientation relative to aligning fibres parallel to the applied stress.

Fibre-reinforced composite materials have gained popularity (despite their generally high cost) in high-performance products that need to be lightweight, yet strong enough to take harsh loading conditions such as aerospace components (tails, wings, fuselages, propellers), boat and scull hulls, bicycle frames and racing car bodies.

A Rolls-Royce Merlin installed in a preserved Avro York

Aircraft engine

Aero engine, is the power component of an aircraft propulsion system.

Aero engine, is the power component of an aircraft propulsion system.

A Rolls-Royce Merlin installed in a preserved Avro York
Wright vertical 4-cylinder engine
Ranger L-440 air-cooled, six-cylinder, inverted, in-line engine used in Fairchild PT-19
A Rolls-Royce Merlin V-12 Engine
A ULPower UL260i horizontally opposed air-cooled aero engine
A Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engine
Le Rhone 9C rotary aircraft engine
Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider, removed from the glider and mounted on a test stand for maintenance at the Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co in Poppenhausen, Germany. Counter-clockwise from top left: propeller hub, mast with belt guide, radiator, Wankel engine, muffler shroud.
Cutaway view of a Garrett TPE-331 turboprop engine showing the gearbox at the front of the engine
An Allison Model 250 turboshaft engine common to many types of helicopters
A General Electric J85-GE-17A turbojet engine. This cutaway clearly shows the 8 stages of axial compressor at the front (left side of the picture), the combustion chambers in the middle, and the two stages of turbines at the rear of the engine.
A cutaway of a CFM56-3 turbofan engine
An XLR99
The thrust levers of a three-engine Boeing 727, each one bearing the respective engine number

A turbofan engine is much the same as a turbojet, but with an enlarged fan at the front that provides thrust in much the same way as a ducted propeller, resulting in improved fuel efficiency.

The propeller speed reduction unit of a Rolls-Royce R engine

Propeller speed reduction unit

Gearbox or a belt and pulley device used to reduce the output revolutions per minute from the higher input rpm of the powerplant.

Gearbox or a belt and pulley device used to reduce the output revolutions per minute from the higher input rpm of the powerplant.

The propeller speed reduction unit of a Rolls-Royce R engine
Simple spur gear reduction

This allows the use of small displacement internal combustion engines to turn aircraft propellers within an efficient speed range.

The Cessna 172, a tractor configuration aircraft, and the most popular airplane ever produced

Tractor configuration

The Cessna 172, a tractor configuration aircraft, and the most popular airplane ever produced
A Britten-Norman Trislander aircraft (with an unusual 3rd tractor engine on the tail) at Guernsey Airport, Channel Islands
The Royal Aircraft Factory FE2 is an example of a pusher configuration

In aviation, the term tractor configuration refers to an aircraft constructed in the standard configuration with its engine mounted with the propeller in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air.

William F. Durand

United States naval officer and pioneer mechanical engineer.

United States naval officer and pioneer mechanical engineer.

Tennessee at Brooklyn Navy Yard in 1875.
A statue of geologist Louis Agassiz was toppled from a Stanford University facade.
The first meeting of the NACA in 1915. Durand is seated far left

Durand proposed to the NACA the need for research on aircraft propellers, modeled on the work he had done on marine propellers at Cornell.

Modern Japanese taketombo bamboo-copters; wooden type with winding thread (left); plastic type (right)

Bamboo-copter

Toy helicopter rotor that flies up when its shaft is rapidly spun.

Toy helicopter rotor that flies up when its shaft is rapidly spun.

Modern Japanese taketombo bamboo-copters; wooden type with winding thread (left); plastic type (right)
A decorated Japanese taketombo propeller

The Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov developed a spring-driven coaxial rotor in 1743, and the French naturalist Christian de Launoy created a bow drill device with contra-rotating feather propellers.

P-factor, change of relative speed and thrust of up- and down-going propeller blades at increasing angle of attack

P-factor

P-factor, change of relative speed and thrust of up- and down-going propeller blades at increasing angle of attack
Fig. 1. The operating right-hand engine will produce a more severe yawing moment towards the dead engine, thus making the failure of the left-hand engine critical

P-factor, also known as asymmetric blade effect and asymmetric disc effect, is an aerodynamic phenomenon experienced by a moving propeller, where the propeller's center of thrust moves off-center when the aircraft is at a high angle of attack.