Properties of water

waterH 2 Owater moleculewater moleculesH2OWater (molecule)density of waterdensity of sea waterWater (properties)hydrogen oxide
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue.wikipedia
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Water vapor

water vapourvaporevaporation
It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface.
Water vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor is the gaseous phase of water.

Chemical substance

chemicalchemicalssubstance
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula ; one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula ; one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O 2 ); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H 2 O).

Ice

water iceicyglacier ice
It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. Aside from common hexagonal crystalline ice, other crystalline and amorphous phases of ice are known.
Ice may be any one of the 18 known solid crystalline phases of water, or in an amorphous solid state at various densities.

Ice Ih

ice I h Ice Ihexagonal ice
Aside from common hexagonal crystalline ice, other crystalline and amorphous phases of ice are known.
Ice I h (pronounced: ice one h, also known as ice-phase-one) is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water.

Molar mass

Formula Weightg/molmass
Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity.
Thus, for example, the average mass of a molecule of water is about 18.0153 daltons, and the molar mass of water is about 18.0153 g/mol.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C – the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules.

Supercritical fluid

supercriticalsupercritical fluidssupercritical water
Water also forms a supercritical fluid.

Thermohaline circulation

meridional overturning circulationconveyor beltthermohaline
On a large scale, the process of brine rejection and sinking cold salty water results in ocean currents forming to transport such water away from the Poles, leading to a global system of currents called the thermohaline circulation.
The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temperature and -haline referring to salt content, factors which together determine the density of sea water.

Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life".

Seawater

sea watersaltwatersalt water
As the surface of salt water begins to freeze (at −1.9 °C for normal salinity seawater, 3.5%) the ice that forms is essentially salt-free, with about the same density as freshwater ice.

Enthalpy of vaporization

Std enthalpy change of vaporizationheat of vaporizationlatent heat of vaporization
Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C – the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules.
On the other hand, the molecules in liquid water are held together by relatively strong hydrogen bonds, and its enthalpy of vaporization, 40.65 kJ/mol, is more than five times the energy required to heat the same quantity of water from 0 °C to 100 °C (c p = 75.3 J K −1 mol −1 ).

Water (data page)

steam tableWaterdata page
The ionic product of pure water,K w has a value of about at 25 °C; see data page for values at other temperatures.
This page provides supplementary data to the article properties of water.

Self-ionization of water

self-ionizationionic productself-ionization constant
The ionic product of pure water,K w has a value of about at 25 °C; see data page for values at other temperatures. Related to its amphoteric character, it undergoes self-ionization.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H 2 O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH −.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Water is miscible with many liquids, including ethanol in all proportions.

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

electrical conductivityresistivityconductivity
In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.05501 ± 0.0001 μS/cm at 25.00 °C.
The conductivity of a solution of water is highly dependent on its concentration of dissolved salts, and other chemical species that ionize in the solution.

Triple point

triple point of waterhigh pressureTriple Point cell
The temperature and pressure at which ordinary solid, liquid, and gaseous water coexist in equilibrium is a triple point of water.
Triple-point cells are so effective at achieving highly precise, reproducible temperatures, that an international calibration standard for thermometers called ITS–90 relies upon triple-point cells of hydrogen, neon, oxygen, argon, mercury, and water for delineating six of its defined temperature points.

Acid rain

acid precipitationacid depositionacidification
If high amounts of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are present in the air, they too will dissolve into the cloud and rain drops, producing acid rain.
Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

Clathrate hydrate

gas hydratesgas hydrateclathrate hydrates
Water ice can form clathrate compounds, known as clathrate hydrates, with a variety of small molecules that can be embedded in its spacious crystal lattice.
Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.

Chemical polarity

polarpolaritynonpolar
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. At standard conditions, water is a polar liquid that slightly dissociates disproportionately into a hydronium ion and hydroxide ion.
Water (H 2 O) is an example of a polar molecule since it has a slight positive charge on one side and a slight negative charge on the other.

Microwave oven

microwavemicrowave ovensmicrowaving
Microwave ovens take advantage of water's opacity to microwave radiation to heat the water inside of foods.
Water, fat, and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating.

Hydronium

hydronium ionH 3 O + hydrogen ions
At standard conditions, water is a polar liquid that slightly dissociates disproportionately into a hydronium ion and hydroxide ion.
Hydronium is the cation that forms from water in the presence of hydrogen ions.

Deuterium

deuterondeuteronsD
Only 155 ppm include deuterium ( or D), a hydrogen isotope with one neutron, and fewer than 20 parts per quintillion include tritium ( or T), which has two neutrons.
D 2 O, for example, is more viscous than H 2 O.

Fresh water

freshwaterfreshlimnic
So creatures that live at the bottom of cold oceans like the Arctic Ocean generally live in water 4 °C colder than at the bottom of frozen-over fresh water lakes and rivers.

Hydrogen peroxide

H 2 O 2 H2O2HO
This is analogous to related compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, and deuterium oxide (heavy water).
In its pure form, it is a very pale blue, clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water.