Proprioception

proprioceptivekinestheticproprioceptorskinesthesiakinaestheticproprioceptorkinesthesisbody-syntonicposition senseproprioceptive deficits
Proprioception, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.wikipedia
459 Related Articles

Golgi tendon organ

golgi tendon organsstretch receptors
In humans, it is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles (muscle spindles) and tendons (Golgi tendon organ) and the fibrous membrane in joint capsules.
The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) (also called Golgi organ, tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.

Sense

sensessensoryfive senses
It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs.
The ability to detect other stimuli beyond those governed by these most broadly recognized senses also exists, and these sensory modalities include temperature (thermoception), kinesthetic sense (proprioception), pain (nociception), balance (equilibrioception), vibration (mechanoreception), and various internal stimuli (e.g. the different chemoreceptors for detecting salt and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood, or sense of hunger and sense of thirst).

Romberg's test

RombergRomberg TestRomberg's sign
At around the same time, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, a Berlin neurologist, was describing unsteadiness made worse by eye closure or darkness, now known as the eponymous Romberg's sign, once synonymous with tabes dorsalis, that became recognised as common to all proprioceptive disorders of the legs.
The exam is based on the premise that a person requires at least two of the three following senses to maintain balance while standing: proprioception (the ability to know one's body position in space); vestibular function (the ability to know one's head position in space); and vision (which can be used to monitor and adjust for changes in body position).

Vestibular system

vestibularvestibular apparatusvestibular function
The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration.
The brain uses information from the vestibular system in the head and from proprioception throughout the body to enable the animal to understand its body's dynamics and kinematics (including its position and acceleration) from moment to moment.

Tabes dorsalis

tabeslocomotor ataxiathird-stage chronic syphilis
At around the same time, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, a Berlin neurologist, was describing unsteadiness made worse by eye closure or darkness, now known as the eponymous Romberg's sign, once synonymous with tabes dorsalis, that became recognised as common to all proprioceptive disorders of the legs.
These nerves normally help maintain a person's sense of position (proprioception), vibration, and discriminative touch.

Muscle spindle

muscle spindlesmuscle spindle organsproprioceptors
In humans, it is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles (muscle spindles) and tendons (Golgi tendon organ) and the fibrous membrane in joint capsules. The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the stretch receptors located in the muscles and the joint-supporting ligaments (stance).
This information can be processed by the brain as proprioception.

Eye–hand coordination

hand-eye coordinationhand–eye coordinationeye-hand coordination
Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination, and training can improve this sense (see blind contour drawing).
Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.

Sensory neuron

sensory neuronssensorysensory receptors
The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the stretch receptors located in the muscles and the joint-supporting ligaments (stance).
The stimulus can come from extoreceptors outside the body, for example light and sound, or from interoreceptors inside the body, for example blood pressure or the sense of body position.

Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve

mesencephalic nucleusmesencephalic trigeminal nucleusmesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
Proprioception of the head stems from the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve, where the GSA fibers pass without synapsing in the trigeminal ganglion (first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.
The mesencephalic nucleus is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth.

Arthropod

arthropodsarthropodabug
Proprioception has also been described in other animals such as vertebrates, and in some invertebrates such as arthropods.
The proprioceptors of arthropods, sensors that report the force exerted by muscles and the degree of bending in the body and joints, are well understood.

Dorsal spinocerebellar tract

posterior spinocerebellar tractdorsaldorsal (posterior) spinocerebellar tract
Non-conscious proprioception is communicated primarily via the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and ventral spinocerebellar tract, to the cerebellum.
The dorsal spinocerebellar tract (posterior spinocerebellar tract, Flechsig's fasciculus, Flechsig's tract) conveys proprioceptive information from proprioceptors in the skeletal muscles and joints to the cerebellum.

Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

dorsal columnposterior columndorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway
In 1847 the London neurologist Robert Todd highlighted important differences in the anterolateral and posterior columns of the spinal cord, and suggested that the latter were involved in the coordination of movement and balance.
The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) (also known as the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)) is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, and proprioception (position) from the skin and joints.

Ventral spinocerebellar tract

anterior spinocerebellar tractventralventral (anterior) spinocerebellar tract
Non-conscious proprioception is communicated primarily via the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and ventral spinocerebellar tract, to the cerebellum.
The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum.

Trigeminal nerve

trigeminalVfifth cranial nerve
Proprioception of the head stems from the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve, where the GSA fibers pass without synapsing in the trigeminal ganglion (first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.
The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference to the face and mouth.

Charles Scott Sherrington

Charles SherringtonSir Charles SherringtonSherrington
In 1906, Charles Scott Sherrington published a landmark work that introduced the terms "proprioception", "interoception", and "exteroception".
Furthermore, he established the nature of postural reflexes and their dependence on the anti-gravity stretch reflex and traced the afferent stimulus to the proprioceptive end organs, which he had previously shown to be sensory in nature ("proprioceptive" was another term he had coined ).

Cerebellum

cerebellarcerebellar cortexcerebellar nuclei
Non-conscious proprioception is communicated primarily via the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and ventral spinocerebellar tract, to the cerebellum. A non-conscious reaction is seen in the human proprioceptive reflex, or righting reflex—in the event that the body tilts in any direction, the person will cock their head back to level the eyes against the horizon. This is seen even in infants as soon as they gain control of their neck muscles. This control comes from the cerebellum, the part of the brain affecting balance.
It receives proprioceptive input from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (including the spinocerebellar tract) and from the cranial trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems.

TRPN

TRPN, a member of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels, has been found to be responsible for proprioception in fruit flies, nematode worms, African clawed frogs, and zebrafish.
Studies in TRPN deficient adult fruit flies and larvae have shown that these null mutants have severe difficulty moving, which suggests a role for TRPN in proprioception.

Placing reflexes

They include the visual and tactile placing reflexes.
If the animal cannot do this it implies that there is either a motor deficit or damage to the sensory pathway for proprioception, or damage to the centres of the brain which would normally integrate this response.

Righting reflex

A non-conscious reaction is seen in the human proprioceptive reflex, or righting reflex—in the event that the body tilts in any direction, the person will cock their head back to level the eyes against the horizon. This is seen even in infants as soon as they gain control of their neck muscles. This control comes from the cerebellum, the part of the brain affecting balance.
The egocentric reference frame refers to a proprioceptive reference frame using the position of an organism's body in a space.

Parietal lobe

parietalparietal cortexparietal lobes
These effects are presumed to arise from abnormal stimulation of the part of the parietal cortex of the brain involved with integrating information from different parts of the body.
The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system.

Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headaches
Similar effects can sometimes occur during epilepsy or migraine auras.
Numbness usually occurs after the tingling has passed with a loss of position sense.

Field sobriety testing

field sobriety testsobriety testField Sobriety Tests
Proprioception is tested by American police officers using the field sobriety test to check for alcohol intoxication.
Nevertheless, these tests can be problematic for people with non-obvious disabilities affecting proprioception, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

Balance board

Rola BolaWobble boardwobble boards
Standing on a wobble board or balance board is often used to retrain or increase proprioception abilities, particularly as physical therapy for ankle or knee injuries.
Thus, the rider stimulates, exercises and teaches the parts of the body that implement the act of balancing (toes, soles, ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, arms and neck) and the parts of the body and brain that create the sense of balance and that engineer the implementation of the act of balancing (inner ears, cerebellum, proprioceptors and eyes).

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
Oliver Sacks reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord.
Somatosensory organization is divided into the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract (the touch/proprioception/vibration sensory pathway) and the anterolateral system, or ALS (the pain/temperature sensory pathway).

Hypnagogia

hypnagogichypnagogic hallucinationshypnagogic state
Similar effects can be felt during the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.
Proprioceptive effects may be noticed, with numbness and changes in perceived body size and proportions, feelings of floating or bobbing, and out-of-body experiences.