Prosody (linguistics)

prosodyprosodicsuprasegmentalsuprasegmental featureprosodicallylinguistic prosodyprosodic analysisprosodic featuresProsodic Phonologyprosodic system
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.wikipedia
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Syllable

codaonsetsyllable coda
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic metre and its stress patterns.

Tone (linguistics)

tonetonal languagetones
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
Most languages use pitch as intonation to convey prosody and pragmatics, but this does not make them tonal languages.

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
Although intonation is primarily a matter of pitch variation, it is important to be aware that functions attributed to intonation such as the expression of attitudes and emotions, or highlighting aspects of grammatical structure, almost always involve concomitant variation in other prosodic features.

Segment (linguistics)

segmentsegmentssegmental
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
In spoken languages, segments will typically be grouped into consonants and vowels, but the term can be applied to any minimal unit of a linear sequence meaningful to the given field of analysis, such as a mora or a syllable in prosodic phonology, a morpheme in morphology, or a chereme in sign language analysis.

Focus (linguistics)

focusfocusednarrow focus
Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus.
Focus also relates to phonology and has ramifications for how and where suprasegmental information such as rhythm, stress, and intonation is encoded in the grammar, and in particular intonational tunes that mark focus.

Isochrony

syllable-timedrhythmstress-timed
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. It has often been asserted that languages exhibit regularity in the timing of successive units of speech, a regularity referred to as isochrony, and that every language may be assigned one of three rhythmical types: stress-timed (where the durations of the intervals between stressed syllables is relatively constant), syllable-timed (where the durations of successive syllables are relatively constant) and mora-timed (where the durations of successive morae are relatively constant).
Rhythm is an aspect of prosody, others being intonation, stress and tempo of speech.

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
That is one of the three components of prosody, along with rhythm and intonation.

Sarcasm

sarcasticsarcasticallysnark
Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus.
In English, sarcasm is often telegraphed with kinesic/prosodic cues by speaking more slowly and with a lower pitch.

Mora (linguistics)

moramoraemoras
It has often been asserted that languages exhibit regularity in the timing of successive units of speech, a regularity referred to as isochrony, and that every language may be assigned one of three rhythmical types: stress-timed (where the durations of the intervals between stressed syllables is relatively constant), syllable-timed (where the durations of successive syllables are relatively constant) and mora-timed (where the durations of successive morae are relatively constant).
A prosodic stress system in which moraically heavy syllables are assigned stress is said to have the property of quantity sensitivity.

Paralanguage

paralinguistictone of voicesigh
Formulaic language pause fillers include "Like", "Er" and "Uhm", and paralinguistic expressive respiratory pauses include the sigh and gasp.
Paralanguage, also known as vocalics, is a component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, by using techniques such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation, etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to nonphonemic properties only.

Acoustic phonetics

acousticacousticallyacoustic speech signal
In the study of prosodic aspects of speech, it is usual to distinguish between auditory measures (subjective impressions produced in the mind of the listener) and acoustic measures (physical properties of the sound wave that may be measured objectively).
(Incidentally, Alexander Graham Bell's father, Alexander Melville Bell, was a phonetician.) During World War II, work at the Bell Telephone Laboratories (which invented the spectrograph) greatly facilitated the systematic study of the spectral properties of periodic and aperiodic speech sounds, vocal tract resonances and vowel formants, voice quality, prosody, etc.

Aprosodia

aprosodyAprosodias
An aprosodia is an acquired or developmental impairment in comprehending or generating the emotion conveyed in spoken language.
Aprosodia is a neurological condition characterized by the inability of a person to properly convey or interpret emotional prosody.

Baby talk

child-directed speechmotheresebaby-talk
Unique prosodic features have been noted in infant-directed speech (IDS) - also known as baby talk, child-directed speech (CDS), or motherese.

Asperger syndrome

Asperger's syndromeAspergerAsperger’s syndrome
This is seen sometimes in persons with Asperger syndrome.
Intense preoccupation with a narrow subject, one-sided verbosity, restricted prosody, and physical clumsiness are typical of the condition, but are not required for diagnosis.

Metre (poetry)

metremeterprosody
(Within linguistics, "prosody" is used in a more general sense that includes not only poetic metre but also the rhythmic aspects of prose, whether formal or informal, that vary from language to language, and sometimes between poetic traditions.)

Prosodic unit

intonation unitintonational phraseintonational phrases
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).

Phonological hierarchy

Prosodic Hierarchygreater than that of the wordhierarchy of levels
The hierarchy from the mora upwards is technically known as the prosodic hierarchy.

Brodmann area 22

superior temporal area 2222Area 22
Understanding these nonverbal elements requires an intact and properly functioning right-hemisphere perisylvian area, particularly Brodmann area 22 (not to be confused with the corresponding area in the left hemisphere, which contains Wernicke's area).
On the right side of the brain it helps to discriminate pitch and sound intensity, both of which are necessary to perceive melody and prosody.

Speech tempo

tempoAllegro speechcadence
Speech tempo may be regarded as one of the components of prosody.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.

Irony

ironicironicallydramatic irony
Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus.

Contrast (linguistics)

juxtapositioncontrastcontrastive
Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus.

Vocabulary

vocabularieslexicalactive vocabulary
It may otherwise reflect other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or by choice of vocabulary.

Auditory phonetics

auditoryauditory representation
In the study of prosodic aspects of speech, it is usual to distinguish between auditory measures (subjective impressions produced in the mind of the listener) and acoustic measures (physical properties of the sound wave that may be measured objectively).