Prosopis africana

Flowering plant species in the genus Fabaceae.

- Prosopis africana

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Rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa.

Mali Empire c. 1350 AD
Les Ballets Africains in Bonn, Germany, 1962
Djembefola DVD cover
Khassonka player in Mali
Spiral pattern on the inside of a well-carved djembe (djalla wood). The spine of the skin is clearly visible through the hole in the waist.
Traditional djembe used by the Kono people from the Nzérékoré region in Forest Guinea. (From the collection of Musée de l'Homme, Paris, added to the collection in 1938.)
Djembe with modern two-ring mounting system
Fibreglass djembe with synthetic skin and lug tuning system
Three completed rows of Mali weave
Djembe decorated with folded-over skin, sege sege, rope wrap, and metalwork
Djembe decorated with extensive carvings on the stem and bowl, with folded-over skin
Cowrie shell and tire decoration on the foot of a djembe
Timing belt decoration on the foot of a djembe (purchased in Conakry in 2001)
Rhythmen Der Malinke CD cover
alt=zero-one vibrational mode created by a bass or tone|(0,1) vibrational mode created by a bass or tone
alt=one-one vibrational mode created by a tonpalo|(1,1) vibrational mode created by a tonpalo
alt=two-one vibrational mode created by a slap|(2,1) vibrational mode created by a slap
alt=zero-two vibrational mode created by a slap|(0,2) vibrational mode created by a slap
alt=one-two vibrational mode created by a slap|(1,2) vibrational mode created by a slap
alt=zero-three vibrational mode created by a slap|(0,3) vibrational mode created by a slap
alt=Spectrum analysis of a bass. The big hump at 75 Hertz is the Helmholtz resonance.|Spectrum analysis of a bass. The big hump is the Helmholtz resonance.
alt=Spectrum analysis of a tone. The pair of spikes at 343 Hz and 401 Hz are the zero-one mode.|Spectrum analysis of a tone. The pair of spikes at 343 Hz and 401 Hz are the (0,1) mode.
alt=Spectrum analysis of a tonpalo (third slap). The tallest spike at 568 Hertz is the one-one mode.|Spectrum analysis of a tonpalo (third slap). The tallest spike is the (1,1) mode.
alt=Spectrum analysis of a slap. The spike at 812 Hz is the two-one mode, followed by higher-order modes.|Spectrum analysis of a slap. The spike at 812 Hz is the (2,1) mode, followed by higher-order modes.
alt=Schematic of two-ring skin mounting|Schematic of two-ring skin mounting
alt=Schematic of three-ring skin mounting|Schematic of three-ring skin mounting
alt=Schematic of first and second row of twists on a djembe|1st and 2nd row of twists on a djembe
alt=Schematic of third and fourth row of twists on a djembe|3rd and 4th row of twists on a djembe

) Besides lenke, traditional woods include djalla (Khaya senegalensis), dugura (Cordyla africana), gueni (Pterocarpus erinaceus), gele (Prosopis africana), and iroko (Milicia excelsa).


Fermented seed condiment used widely across West Africa.

Balls of sumbala (a.k.a. dawadawa) and the néré seeds they are prepared from (Kera, western Burkina Faso, June 2014).
A dish of rice with sumbala (Bama, western Burkina Faso, February 2014).

It can be made from other kinds of seeds, such as those of Prosopis africana, and the use of soybeans for this purpose is increasing due mainly to inadequate supply of néré seeds.

Tree of life

Fundamental archetype in many of the world's mythologies, religious, and philosophical traditions.

An 1847 depiction of the Norse Yggdrasil as described in the Icelandic Prose Edda by Oluf Olufsen Bagge
17th-century depiction of the tree of life in Palace of Shaki Khans, Azerbaijan
Confronted animals, here ibexes, flank a tree of Life, a very common motif in the art of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean
Assyrian tree of life, from Nimrud panels.
The Urartian tree of life
Tree of life on a rhyton from Marlik, Iran, currently at the National Museum of Iran.
Bronze Tree with birds, flowers, and ornaments from Sanxingdui
Allegorical painting of the Tree of Life in the Church of San Roque of Arahal (Seville). Oil on canvas by anonymous author. Dated 1723
Manichaeans worshiping the Tree of Life in the Realm of Light. Mid 9th — early 11th century.
11th century tree of life sculpture at an ancient Swedish church
Carpet tree of life
Judaic Kabbalah tree of life 10 Sefirot, through which the Ein Sof unknowable divine manifests Creation. The configuration relates to man
The tree of life, as seen as in flag of Chuvashia, a Turkic state in the Russian Federation

In the competing versions of the Serer creation myth, the Somb (Prosopis africana) and the Saas tree (acacia albida) are both viewed as trees of life.

Serer creation myth

Traditional creation myth of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania.

Nqaul: Known by various name, its current scientific name is Mitragyna inermis, part of the genus Mitragyna in the family Rubiaceae (2012). The barks, leaves and roots of the tree are used in many parts of West Africa for human and veterinary medicine. Found in Senegal to the Congo mainly in frequently flooded river banks and flood plains.
A Serer graveyard with Serer grave diggers (1821)
Side-striped jackal in Kruger National Park, South Africa.
Yoonir, symbol of the Universe in Serer cosmology. common known as the Star of Sirius.
Serer cosmogonical representation of the Universe. The three worlds: the invisible world, the terrestrial world and the nocturnal world. (Henry Gravrand, La civilisation sereer Pangool (1990).

3. Somb - Prosopis africana a species of Prosopis


The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

Prosopine is an alkaloid found in Prosopis africana.

Giant eland

Open-forest and savanna antelope.

Giant elands have tightly spiraled, V-shaped horns
The giant eland is a herbivore.
Two males fighting for dominance
At the Houston Zoo

A study of giant elands in the Bandia Natural reserve in Senegal revealed that the most important and most preferred plants were various species of Acacia, Terminalia and Combretum, along with Azadirachta indica, Danielia olliveri, Lonchocarpus laxiflorus, Maytenus senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Saba senegalensis and pods of Piliostigma thonningii.

Wildlife of Uganda

Composed of its flora and fauna.

Ugandan kob female and calf, Semliki Wildlife Reserve
Topography of Uganda
The flower spike of Lobelia telekii can grow up to 3 m tall
Mother and juvenile chimpanzees eating Ficus fruit in Kibale National Park
Mountain gorilla

In the northwest of the country, in the Murchison Falls National Park, 80% of the tree cover has been lost over several decades and the remaining woodland is dominated by Terminalia schimperiana and Prosopis africana, the balance being created by herbivores, which suppress regeneration, and fires which favour fire-tolerant species.

Kiang West National Park

One of the largest and most important wildlife reserves in the Gambia.

The bateleur can be seen in the park
Park entrance

The park's tree species include the baobab (Adansonia digitata), red acacia (Acacia seyal), Pterocarpus erinaceus, Ceiba pentandra, Terminalia macroptera, Prosopis africana, and Ficus species.

Wildlife of Senegal

The wildlife of Senegal consists of the flora and fauna of this nation in West Africa.

Banded mongoose
Green monkey male, Senegal

In the coastal zone of Niayes, a coastal strip of land between Dakar and Saint Louis where a line of lakes lie behind the coastal sand dunes, the predominant vegetation is the African oil-palm, along with the African mesquite and Cape fig.

Kamuku National Park

Nigerian national park in Kaduna State, Nigeria, with a total area of about 1120 km2.

Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius)

Other common trees include Daniellia oliveri, Nauclea latifolia, Acacia, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Prosopis africana and Isoberlinia tomentosa.