Prostate brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy, or radiation treatment, offered to certain cancer patients.wikipedia
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Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
LDR brachytherapy is the type that is most commonly used to treat prostate cancer; it may sometimes be referred to as 'seed implantation' or it may also be called 'pinhole surgery'.
Treatment of aggressive prostate cancers may involve surgery (i.e. radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy), external beam radiation therapy, and particle therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), chemotherapy, oral chemotherapeutic drugs (temozolomide/TMZ), cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or some combination.

Brachytherapy

implant radiationradiation seederbrachytheraputic
Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy, or radiation treatment, offered to certain cancer patients.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy, or radiation treatment, offered to certain cancer patients.

Neoplasm

tumortumorstumour
In LDR brachytherapy, tiny radioactive particles the size of a grain of rice (see ) are implanted directly into the site of the tumour.

Outpatient surgery

day surgeryambulatory surgery centerambulatory surgery
Unlike traditional surgery, LDR brachytherapy requires no incisions and is normally carried out as a day case procedure.

Urinary incontinence

incontinenceurinarycontinence
As described below, LDR brachytherapy has a good side-effect profile with less risk of incontinence or impotence than other treatment options, and is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to major surgery (conventional radical prostatectomy or laparoscopic (keyhole surgery) radical prostatectomy). Although patients may experience problems (urinary incontinence or difficulty with urination) for the first 6 months or so after their implant, these usually settle down and lasting problems are rare, only occurring in about 1–2% of patients.

Iodine-125

125 I125-I125I
Isotopes used include iodine 125 (half-life 59.4 days) palladium 103 (half-life 17 days) and cesium-131 (half life 9.7 days).

Half-life

half-liveshalf lifehalf lives
Isotopes used include iodine 125 (half-life 59.4 days) palladium 103 (half-life 17 days) and cesium-131 (half life 9.7 days).

Isotopes of caesium

caesium-133 134 Cscaesium-134
Isotopes used include iodine 125 (half-life 59.4 days) palladium 103 (half-life 17 days) and cesium-131 (half life 9.7 days).

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
When LDR prostate brachytherapy (seed or polymer source implantation) is carried out, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the back passage (rectum), and images from this probe are used to assess the size and shape of the prostate gland.

Rectum

rectalrectallyrectal ampulla
When LDR prostate brachytherapy (seed or polymer source implantation) is carried out, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the back passage (rectum), and images from this probe are used to assess the size and shape of the prostate gland.

Prostate

prostate glandprostaticventral prostate
When LDR prostate brachytherapy (seed or polymer source implantation) is carried out, an ultrasound probe is inserted into the back passage (rectum), and images from this probe are used to assess the size and shape of the prostate gland. LDR prostate brachytherapy (seed or line source implantation) is a proven treatment for low to high risk localized prostate cancer (when the cancer is contained within the prostate). Under a general anaesthetic, the radioactive seeds are injected through fine needles directly into the prostate, so that the radiotherapy can destroy the cancer cells.

Scrotum

scrotalscrotal skinprescrotal
This usually takes 1–2 hours. No surgical incision is required; instead, the radioactive seeds are inserted into the prostate gland using needles which pass through the skin between the scrotum and the rectum (the perineum) and an ultrasound probe is used to accurately guide them to their final position.

Perineum

perinealperineal bodyanogenital
This usually takes 1–2 hours. No surgical incision is required; instead, the radioactive seeds are inserted into the prostate gland using needles which pass through the skin between the scrotum and the rectum (the perineum) and an ultrasound probe is used to accurately guide them to their final position.

Urination

urinateurinatingmicturition
Although patients may experience problems (urinary incontinence or difficulty with urination) for the first 6 months or so after their implant, these usually settle down and lasting problems are rare, only occurring in about 1–2% of patients.

Erectile dysfunction

impotenceimpotentimpotency
As described below, LDR brachytherapy has a good side-effect profile with less risk of incontinence or impotence than other treatment options, and is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to major surgery (conventional radical prostatectomy or laparoscopic (keyhole surgery) radical prostatectomy).

Management of prostate cancer

Treatment for prostate cancer may involve active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy - including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy) and external-beam radiation therapy, proton therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, or some combination.

Muyinatu Bell

The technique can be used for photoacoustic image guidance of medical procedures, such as skull base surgery or prostate brachytherapy.

Rudy Giuliani

Rudolph GiulianiRudolph W. GiulianiGiuliani
Giuliani chose a combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September 2000, followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute, five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical Center, with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy.