Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate canceradvanced prostate cancerprostate adenocarcinomaprostatic cancercancercancer of the prostateprostate carcinomaprostate tumor
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.wikipedia
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Prostate

prostate glandprostaticventral prostate
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Disorders of the prostate include enlargement, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer.

BRCA mutation

BRCABRCA'' mutationBRCA1/2
An increased risk is associated with the BRCA mutations.
However, BRCA mutations can increase the risk of other cancers, such as colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlarged prostatebenign prostatic hypertrophybenign prostate hyperplasia
A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms.
Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in males with BPH, the condition does not increase the risk of prostate cancer.

Active surveillance of prostate cancer

active surveillance
Many cases are managed with active surveillance or watchful waiting.
Active surveillance is a management option for localized prostate cancer that can be offered to appropriate patients who would also be candidates for aggressive local therapies (surgery and radiotherapy), with the intent to intervene if the disease progresses.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.

Hormonal therapy (oncology)

hormonal therapyhormone therapyhormonal antineoplastic agent
Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.
Hormonal therapy is used for several types of cancers derived from hormonally responsive tissues, including the breast, prostate, endometrium, and adrenal cortex.

Gonorrhea

gonorrhoeathe clapgonorhea
An association with gonorrhea has been found, but a reason for this relationship has not been identified.
Gonorrhea is also associated with increased risk of prostate cancer.

Chromoplexy

These fusions can arise via complex rearrangement chains called chromoplexy.
This phenomenon was first identified in prostate cancer by whole genome sequencing of prostate tumors.

Fecal incontinence

incontinenceFecal leakagefaecal incontinence
Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing tingling, leg weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence.
Irradiation may occur during radiotherapy, e.g. for prostate cancer.

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

prostatic intraepithelial neoplasiahigh-grade PINPIN
Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in situ or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).
High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is an abnormality of prostatic glands and believed to precede the development of prostate adenocarcinoma (the most common form of prostate cancer).

Dysuria

painful urinationburning with urinationpain with urination
These include frequent urination, nocturia (increased urination at night), difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), and dysuria (painful urination).

BRCA2

FANCD1breast cancer 2BRCA 2
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, important risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have also been implicated in prostate cancer.
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate and pancreatic cancer.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.
Metastases within bone are "secondary" cancers, with the most common being breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, and kidney cancer.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
Finally, obesity and elevated blood levels of testosterone may increase the risk for prostate cancer. Androgens include testosterone, which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone, made in the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the prostate itself.
Testosterone does not appear to increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

TMPRSS2

transmembrane serine protease 2
TMPRSS2-ETS gene family fusion, specifically TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1/4 promotes cancer cell growth.
This gene was demonstrated to be up-regulated by androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells and down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue.

Five-year survival rate

5-year survival rateFive-year survivalfive-year survival rates
The 5-year survival rate in the United States is 98%.
Use of five-year survival statistics is more useful in aggressive diseases that have a shorter life expectancy following diagnosis, such as lung cancer, and less useful in cases with a long life expectancy, such as prostate cancer.

BRCA1

BRCA geneFANCSBABAM1
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, important risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have also been implicated in prostate cancer.
In addition to breast cancer, mutations in the BRCA1 gene also increase the risk of ovarian and prostate cancers.

Dihydrotestosterone

5α-DihydrotestosteroneDHT17-hydroxyandrostan-3-one
Androgens include testosterone, which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone, made in the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the prostate itself.
In addition to normal biological functions, DHT also plays an important causative role in a number of androgen-dependent conditions including hair conditions like hirsutism (excessive facial/body hair growth) and pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia or pattern baldness) and prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer.

Fusion gene

gene fusionfusiongene fusions
TMPRSS2-ETS gene family fusion, specifically TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1/4 promotes cancer cell growth.
Most fusion genes are found from hematological cancers, sarcomas, and prostate cancer.

Rectal examination

digital rectal examinationdigital rectal examanal probe
Digital rectal examination (DRE) may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities.

Gleason grading system

Gleason scoreGleason gradeGleason scoring
The histopathologic subdiagnosis of prostate cancer has implications for the possibility and methodology of any subsequent Gleason scoring.
The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy.

Agent Orange

defoliantSuper OrangeAgent Orange Product Liability Litigation
Research released in May 2007 found that US war veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange had a 48% increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence following surgery.
Some studies have suggested that veterans exposed to Agent Orange may be more at risk of developing prostate cancer and potentially more than twice as likely to develop higher-grade, more lethal prostate cancers.

Urology

urologisturologicalurologic
During a biopsy a urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via the rectum.
Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary-tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.

Rectum

rectalrectallyrectal ampulla
It is located in the pelvis, under the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum.
These include faecal impaction, prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy in men, faecal incontinence, and internal haemorrhoids.