British Protectorateprotectionprotectoratesprotected stateBritish protected stateamical protectorateIndian protectorateBritish ProtectoratesFrench protectorateSchutzgebiet
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.wikipedia
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suzerainBritish Paramountcysuzerains
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
While a sovereign state can agree by treaty to become a protectorate of a stronger power, modern international law does not recognise any way of making this relationship compulsory on the weaker power.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang also conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system.

Protectorate General to Pacify the East

AndongAndong Duhu Fuconquer
The Protectorate-General to Pacify the East was a protectorate established by the Tang dynasty in the northeast after defeating the kingdom of Goguryeo.

League of Nations mandate

mandatemandatesmandate territory
Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community.
The mandates were fundamentally different from the protectorates in that the Mandatory power undertook obligations to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League of Nations.

Saar Protectorate

SaarSaarlandSaar (protectorate)
*Saar Protectorate (1947–1956), not colonial or amical, but a former part of Germany that would by referendum return to it, in fact a re-edition of a former League of Nations mandate.
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.

Cook Islands

Cook IslandCookThe Cook Islands
Examples of microstates understood as modern protected states include Andorra, Bhutan, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Niue, the Cook Islands, and Palau.
The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888, largely because of community fears that France might occupy the islands as it already had Tahiti.

Indirect rule

indirectlyadvisory rolegovern through the existing power structure
The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule.
In 1890 Zanzibar became a protectorate (not a colony) of Britain.

Annam (French protectorate)

AnnamAnnam ProtectorateFrench protectorate of Annam
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.


This is distinct from annexation, in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.
During the British colonial rule in India, Sikkim had an ambiguous status, as an Indian princely state or as an Indian protectorate.

French protectorate in Morocco

French MoroccoMoroccoFrench protectorate
Though the French military occupation of Morocco began in 1907 with the bombardment of Casablanca, the protectorate was officially established March 30, 1912, when Sultan Abd al-Hafid signed the Treaty of Fez, and lasted until independence and dissolution in 1956.

Ivory Coast

Côte d'ivoireIvorianCote d'Ivoire
The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa.


Islamic Republic of MauritaniaMauritaneanMauritanian
Mauritania was part of French West Africa from 1920, as a protectorate and, then, a colony.

French Polynesia

Tahitiadministrative subdivisionFrench Oceania
In 1842, the French took over the islands and established a French protectorate they called Établissements français d'Océanie (EFO) (French Establishments/Settlements of Oceania).

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of Africa
This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa.
France and Spain subsequently established a full protectorate over Morocco (30 March 1912), ending what remained of the country's formal independence.


MoroccanSultanate of MoroccoKingdom of Morocco
*Spanish Morocco 🇲🇦 protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone (Cape Juby) until 2 April 1958).
The 1912 Treaty of Fez made Morocco a protectorate of France, and triggered the 1912 Fez riots.

Berlin Conference

Conference of BerlinBerlin Conference (1884)Berlin West Africa Conference
The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground.

German New Guinea

New GuineaGerman MicronesiaDeutsch-Neuguinea
The mainland part of the territory, called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, became a German protectorate in 1884.

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Bohemia and MoraviaProtectorateProtectorate Bohemia and Moravia
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.


German TogolandGerman Togo1914 invasion of Togoland
Togoland was a German Empire protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914, encompassing what is now the nation of Togo and most of what is now the Volta Region of Ghana, approximately 77,355 km 2 (29,867 sq mi) in size.


Kingdom of DahomeyDahomeanDanhome
The kingdom was reduced and made a French protectorate in 1894.


Sikkim, IndiaSikhimSikkim State
After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Republic of India.


MalagasyMadagascanMalagasy politician
In 1890, the British accepted the full formal imposition of a French protectorate on the island, but French authority was not acknowledged by the government of Madagascar.

Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna IslandsWallis IslandsWallis-et-Futuna
On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea (on the island of Wallis) signed a treaty officially establishing a French protectorate.

Marshall Islands

MarshallsRepublic of the Marshall IslandsMarshall
This accord established a protectorate and set up trading stations on the islands of Jaluit (Joló) and Ebon to carry out the flourishing copra (dried coconut meat) trade.

Kingdom of Kongo

KongoCongoKongo Kingdom
The remaining territories of the kingdom were assimilated into the colony of Angola and the Protectorate of Cabinda respectively.