Protein tyrosine phosphatase

tyrosine phosphataseprotein tyrosine phosphatasesPTPprotein-tyrosine-phosphatasetyrosine phosphatasesCC3protein thyrosine phosphatasesprotein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22protein tyrosine phosphatase sigmaProtein-tyrosine phosphatases
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins.wikipedia
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Tyrosine kinase

tyrosine kinasesprotein-tyrosine kinaseprotein tyrosine kinase
Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signalling molecules, such as the MAP kinase family.
Most tyrosine kinases have an associated protein tyrosine phosphatase, which removes the phosphate group.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MAPKMAP kinasemitogen-activated protein kinases
Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signalling molecules, such as the MAP kinase family.
Since removal of either phosphate groups will greatly reduce MAPK activity, essentially abolishing signaling, some tyrosine phosphatases are also involved in inactivating MAP kinases (e.g. the phosphatases HePTP, STEP and PTPRR in mammals).

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

LEOPARD syndromeMoynahan syndromeMultiple lentigines syndrome
LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Metachondromatosis are associated with PTPN11.
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).

PTPN11

SHP-2SHP2PTPN11/Shp2
LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Metachondromatosis are associated with PTPN11.
PTPN11 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2.

PTPN5

STEPSTriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase
Elevated levels of activated PTPN5 negatively affects synaptic stability and plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease, Fragile X Syndrome schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), non-receptor type 5, also known as STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase), was the first brain-specific PTP discovered.

Receptor tyrosine phosphatase

Receptor tyrosine phosphatases are enzyme-linked receptor phosphatases, a sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

PTEN (gene)

PTENPTEN genePhosphatase and tensin homolog
It contains a tensin-like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases.

Cdc25

Cdc25ACdc25CCdc25 phosphatase
Cdc25 phosphatases (dTyr and/or dThr)
Dual-specificity phosphatases are considered a sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

CDC25A

ACdc25
The Class III PTPs contains three members, CDC25 A, B, and C
They represent a subgroup of the tyrosine phosphatase family (as opposed to the serine/threonine phosphatase family).

Noonan syndrome

Noonan's syndromeNoonan
LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Metachondromatosis are associated with PTPN11.

Phosphatase

phosphatasesprotein phosphatasesalkaline and acid phosphatases
Dual-specificity phosphatases (dTyr and dSer/dThr) dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases.
Similarly, dual-specificity tyrosine phosphatases can dephosphorylate not only tyrosine residues, but also serine residues.

PTPN6

SHP-1SHP1HP-1
The expression of several PTPS is restricted to hematopoietic cells, for example, LYP, SHP1, CD45, and HePTP.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family.

Protein domain

domainsdomainstructural domain
An example of a superdomain is the protein tyrosine phosphatase–C2 domain pair in PTEN, tensin, auxilin and the membrane protein TPTE2.

Cell surface receptor

transmembrane receptorreceptorcell surface receptors
As of 2009, there are 6 known types of enzyme-linked receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases; Tyrosine kinase associated receptors; Receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases; Receptor serine/threonine kinases; Receptor guanylyl cyclases and histidine kinase associated receptors.

PTPRC

CD45CD45ROB220
The expression of several PTPS is restricted to hematopoietic cells, for example, LYP, SHP1, CD45, and HePTP.
The protein product of this gene, best known as CD45, is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family.

PTPN22

LYP
The expression of several PTPS is restricted to hematopoietic cells, for example, LYP, SHP1, CD45, and HePTP.
This gene encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase which is expressed primarily in lymphoid tissues.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins.

Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphate
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins.

Tyrosine

Tyrtyrosine metabolismL-tyrosine
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins.

Regulation of gene expression

gene regulationregulationregulatory
As a consequence, maintaining an appropriate level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for many cellular functions.

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.

MAPK/ERK pathway

MAPK/ERKMAPKMAPK signaling pathway
These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.

Cell cycle

M phasecell cycle progressioncell-cycle
These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.

Cell growth

proliferationcell proliferationgrowth
These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.

Malignant transformation

transformationtransformtransformed
These enzymes are key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways (such as the MAP kinase pathway) and cell cycle control, and are important in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and synaptic plasticity.