Proteinogenic amino acid

proteinogenicamino acidsList of standard amino acidsnon-proteinogenicproteinogenic amino acidsamino acidstandard amino acidsamino acid chemical propertiesencoded amino acidencoded amino acids
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.wikipedia
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Non-proteinogenic amino acids

non-proteinogenic amino acidunnatural amino acidsnon-proteinogenic
In contrast, non-proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are either not incorporated into proteins (like GABA, L -DOPA, or triiodothyronine), misincorporated in place of a genetically encoded amino acid, or not produced directly and in isolation by standard cellular machinery (like hydroxyproline).

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
They include the 22 proteinogenic ("protein-building") amino acids, which combine into peptide chains ("polypeptides") to form the building-blocks of a vast array of proteins.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable side chain are bonded.

Selenocysteine

L-selenocysteineSeC 3 NO 2 H 7 selenoamino acid
Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes can incorporate selenocysteine into their proteins via a nucleotide sequence known as a SECIS element, which directs the cell to translate a nearby UGA codon as selenocysteine (UGA is normally a stop codon).
Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.

Nonribosomal peptide

nonribosomal peptide synthetasenonribosomal peptide synthetasesnon-ribosomal peptide synthesis
Some non-proteinogenic amino acids are incorporated into nonribosomal peptides which are synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.
Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or branched structures, can contain non-proteinogenic amino acids including D -amino acids, carry modifications like N-methyl and N-formyl groups, or are glycosylated, acylated, halogenated, or hydroxylated.

Methionine

Metmethionine metabolismL-methionine
The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine (i.e. H, I, L, K, M, F, T, W, V).
Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids.

Canavanine

L-canavaninecavananine
Other reasons have been offered to explain why certain specific non-proteinogenic amino acids are not generally incorporated into proteins; for example, ornithine and homoserine cyclize against the peptide backbone and fragment the protein with relatively short half-lives, while others are toxic because they can be mistakenly incorporated into proteins, such as the arginine analog canavanine.
It is structurally related to the proteinogenic α-amino acid L -arginine, the sole difference being the replacement of a methylene bridge (- - unit) in arginine with an oxa group (i.e., an oxygen atom) in canavanine.

Cysteine

CysL-cysteinecystein
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; ) is a semiessential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO 2 CCH(NH 2 )CH 2 SH.

Homoserine

L-homoserine L -homoserine
Other reasons have been offered to explain why certain specific non-proteinogenic amino acids are not generally incorporated into proteins; for example, ornithine and homoserine cyclize against the peptide backbone and fragment the protein with relatively short half-lives, while others are toxic because they can be mistakenly incorporated into proteins, such as the arginine analog canavanine.
It differs from the proteinogenic amino acid serine by insertion of an additional -CH 2 - unit into the backbone.

Proline

ProL-proline L -proline
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

Asparagine

AsnL-asparagineasparagin
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N ), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

Glycine

GlyGglycinate
Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids.

Aspartic acid

aspartateAspL-aspartate
The L -isomer of Asp is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins.

Tyrosine

Tyrtyrosine metabolismL-tyrosine
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

Threonine

ThrL-threoninephosphothreonine
The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine (i.e. H, I, L, K, M, F, T, W, V).
Threonine was the last of the 20 common proteinogenic amino acids to be discovered.

Pyrrolysine

Pyl
In some methanogenic prokaryotes, the UAG codon (normally a stop codon) can also be translated to pyrrolysine.
Unlike posttranslational modifications of lysine such as hydroxylysine, methyllysine, and hypusine, pyrrolysine is incorporated during translation (protein synthesis) as directed by the genetic code, just like the standard amino acids.

Serine

SerL-serineS
This compound is one of the naturally occurring proteinogenic amino acids.

Ornithine

L-ornithine L -ornithineL''-ornithine
Other reasons have been offered to explain why certain specific non-proteinogenic amino acids are not generally incorporated into proteins; for example, ornithine and homoserine cyclize against the peptide backbone and fragment the protein with relatively short half-lives, while others are toxic because they can be mistakenly incorporated into proteins, such as the arginine analog canavanine.
Ornithine is not an amino acid coded for by DNA, that is, not proteinogenic.

Essential amino acid

essential amino acidsessentialnon-essential amino acid
The other nine must be consumed (usually as their protein derivatives), and so they are called essential amino acids.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
These encode the twenty standard amino acids, giving most amino acids more than one possible codon.

Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translation
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.