Proteinuria

protein in the urineproteinIsolated proteinuriaProtein loss in the urinebuildup of protein metabolic wastedeposition of proteinexcess proteins in the urineexcessive protein loss in the urinekidney problemspresence of protein
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.wikipedia
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Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Severe proteinurina can cause nephrotic syndrome in which there is worsening swelling of the body.
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.

Clinical urine tests

urinalysisurine testurine sample
In healthy persons, urine contains very little protein; an excess is suggestive of illness.

Glomerulonephritis

C3 glomerulonephritisglomerular nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
People with diabetes may have damaged nephrons and develop proteinuria.
Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

focal segmental glomerular sclerosisFSGSFocal and segmental glomerular lesions
In adults, it may also present as kidney failure and proteinuria, without a full-blown nephrotic syndrome.

Membranous glomerulonephritis

membranous nephropathymembranous nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranous
Some people may present as nephrotic syndrome with proteinuria, edema with or without kidney failure.

Eclampsia

eclamptic psychosispre-eclampsia or eclampsiapregnancy-induced
Typically the pregnant woman develops hypertension and proteinuria before the onset of a convulsion (seizure).

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
The most common cause is diabetic nephropathy; in this case, proper glycemic control may slow the progression.
Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting generalized body swelling (edema) and result in the nephrotic syndrome.

IgA nephropathy

Berger's diseaseBerger diseaseglomerulonephritis, iga
A smaller proportion (20-30%), usually the older population, have microscopic hematuria and proteinuria (less than 2 gram/day).

Alport syndrome

Alport's syndromeHereditary nephritis
Proteinuria is a feature as kidney disease progresses.

Minimal change disease

lipoid nephrosisMinimal change lesionminimal change nephropathy
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin).

Bevacizumab

AvastinMvasi
Proteinuria can also be caused by certain biological agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin) used in cancer treatment.
Protein in the urine occurs in approximately 20% of people.

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
Symptoms of diminished oncotic pressure may include ascites, edema and hydrothorax.
Although a low plasma oncotic pressure is widely cited for the edema of nephrotic syndrome, most physicians note that the edema may occur before there is any significant protein in the urine (proteinuria) or fall in plasma protein level.

Sarcoidosis

pulmonary sarcoidosissarcoidBoeck's sarcoid
Symptomatic kidney involvement is usually nephrocalcinosis, although granulomatous interstitial nephritis that presents with reduced creatinine clearance and little proteinuria is a close second.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

Oncotic pressure

colloid osmotic pressureosmotic pressureoncotic" or "colloid" osmotic pressure
diminished oncotic pressure.
In conditions where plasma proteins are reduced, e.g. from being lost in the urine (proteinuria), there will be a reduction in oncotic pressure and an increase in filtration across the capillary, resulting in excess fluid buildup in the tissues (edema).

Fanconi syndrome

Fanconi's SyndromeFanconiHereditary primary Fanconi disease

Fabry disease

Fabry's diseaseAnderson-Fabry diseaseGLA
The presence of protein in the urine (which causes foamy urine) is often the first sign of kidney involvement.

Nail–patella syndrome

Nail-patella syndromeAbsent patellaFong Disease
Kidney issues may arise such as proteinuria and nephritis.

Henoch–Schönlein purpura

Henoch-Schonlein purpuraIgA vasculitispurpura, schoenlein-henoch
With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria), but this usually goes unnoticed; in a small proportion of cases, the kidney involvement proceeds to chronic kidney disease.

Amyloidosis

amyloid degenerationamyloidosesfamilial amyloidosis
Diagnosis may be suspected when protein is found in the urine, organ enlargement is present, or problems are found with multiple peripheral nerves and it is unclear why.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Painless passage of blood or protein in the urine may often be the only presenting sign of kidney involvement.

Hypertensive kidney disease

nephrosclerosishypertensive nephropathyHypertensive nephrosclerosis
Additional complications often associated with hypertensive nephropathy include glomerular damage resulting in protein and blood in the urine.

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren's syndromeSjogren's syndromeSjogren syndrome
Some patients can develop renal (kidney) involvement (autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis) leading to proteinuria (excess protein in urine), urinary concentrating defect, and distal renal tubular acidosis.

Goodpasture syndrome

Goodpasture's syndromeanti-glomerular basement membrane diseaseAnti-Glomerular Basement Membrane nephritis
Kidney symptoms usually include blood in the urine, protein in the urine, unexplained swelling of limbs or face, high amounts of urea in the blood, and high blood pressure.