Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant churchProtestant ChristianProtestant ChristianityProtestant churchesEvangelicalProtestant theologyProtestant ChristiansProtestant faith
Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.wikipedia
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List of Christian denominations by number of members

largest Christian churchlargest denominationall Christian denominations
Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The list includes the following Christian denominations: the Catholic Church including the Eastern Catholic Churches; all the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches with some recognition and their offshoots; Protestant denominations with at least 0.2 million members; the provinces of the Anglican Communion with at least 0.2 million members; all the other Christian branches with distinct theologies, such as Restorationist and Nontrinitarianian denominations; the independent Catholic denominations; and the Church of the East.

Sola fide

justification by faithfaith alonejustification by faith alone
They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals (sola scriptura).
Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also known as justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish many Protestant churches from the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.

Christianity in the 16th century

16th16th century16th centuries
In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland.
In 16th-century Christianity, Protestantism came to the forefront and marked a significant change in the Christian world.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Similarly, Protestantism split in numerous denominations from the Latin Catholic Church in the Reformation era (16th century) over theological and ecclesiological disputes, most predominantly on the issue of justification and the primacy of the bishop of Rome.

John Wycliffe

John WyclifWycliffeJohn Wycliff
Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting, and modern movement.
He became an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century and is considered an important predecessor to Protestantism.

Universal priesthood

priesthood of all believerspriesthood of the believerthe priesthood of all believers
They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals (sola scriptura).
Derived from the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale, it became prominent as a tenet of Protestant Christian doctrine, and the exact meaning of the belief and its implications vary widely among denominations.

Bible

biblicalThe BibleChristian Bible
They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than also by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone (rather than also with sacred tradition) in faith and morals (sola scriptura).
Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans, Methodists and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of both the Bible and sacred tradition, while many Protestant churches focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.

Jan Hus

John HusJohn HussHus
Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting, and modern movement.
1372 – 6 July 1415), sometimes anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss, was a Czech theologian and philosopher who became a church reformer and an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation.

Christians

ChristianNasranibelievers
Protestantism is the second-largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant (37%).

Protestant culture

culturecultural Protestantismtheir own culture
Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, and many other fields.
All Protestant churches allow their clergy to marry, in contrast to the Roman Catholic Church.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Reformed (or Calvinist) denominations spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox.
The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).

Five solae

five solasfive ''solaeFive ''sola
The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.
The five solae (from Latin, sola, lit. "alone"; occasionally Anglicized to five solas) of the Protestant Reformation are a foundational set of principles held by theologians and clergy to be central to the doctrine of salvation as taught by the Reformed branches of Protestantism.

Latvia

Republic of LatviaLatvianLAT
In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland.
Latvia is historically predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
Reformed (or Calvinist) denominations spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox.
After religious tensions erupted in widespread deadly violence against Protestant Christians in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where in 1536 he published the first edition of the Institutes.

Branch theory

branchbranchesdivided church
Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the four major divisions of Christianity together with the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
Branch theory is a ecclesiological proposition within Anglicanism and Protestantism that the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church includes various Christian denominations whether in formal communion or not.

Evangelical Church in Germany

EvangelicalProtestantEvangelical Church
Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany.
The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (e.g. Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.

Restoration Movement

Stone-Campbell MovementStone-Campbell Restoration MovementRestorationist
This often serves as a reason for exclusion of the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement, Unitarian Universalism, Oneness Pentecostalism and other movements from Protestantism by various observers.
Especially since the mid-20th century, members of these churches do not identify as Protestant but simply as Christian.

Sola scriptura

Scripture aloneAuthority of Scripturesufficiency of Scripture
The belief, emphasized by Luther, in the Bible as the highest source of authority for the church.
Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, and one of the five solae.

John Knox

KnoxKnox’sMartha Knox
Reformed (or Calvinist) denominations spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox.
On his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility.

Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestant
It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the four major divisions of Christianity together with the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
The religious authority for Eastern Orthodoxy is not a patriarch or the Bishop of Rome as in Catholicism, nor the Bible as in Protestantism, but the scriptures as interpreted by the seven ecumenical councils of the Imperial Roman Church.

Diet of Speyer (1526)

Diet of SpeyerFirst Diet of Speyer1526
The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The diet's ambiguous edict resulted in a temporary suspension of the Edict of Worms and aided the expansion of Protestantism.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland.
The foundation of Sweden's success during this period is credited to Gustav I's major changes to the Swedish economy in the 16th century, and his introduction of Protestantism.

One true church

only true churchone true religionone, true and complete Christian faith
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ.
Many mainstream Protestants regard all baptized Christians as members of the Christian Church; this belief is sometimes referred to by the theological term "invisible church".

Excommunication

excommunicatedexcommunicateexcommunicating
He was excommunicated and burned at the stake in Constance, Bishopric of Constance in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy.
For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication.