Protocol stack

network stackprotocol suitenetwork protocol stacknetworking stackstackprotocol layersuite of networking protocolscommunication stackcommunications stackIP stack
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.wikipedia
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Communication protocol

protocolprotocolscommunications protocol
Some of these terms are used interchangeably but strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of the communication protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them.
A group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol suite; when implemented in software they are a protocol stack.

Network interface controller

network cardnetwork interface cardNIC
For example, this interface level would define how TCP/IP transport software would talk to the network interface controller.
This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among computers on the same local area network (LAN) and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as Internet Protocol (IP).

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
In a protocol stack (also see the OSI model), each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media.

Winsock

Trumpet WinsockWinsock 2sockets
Examples of these interfaces include Berkeley sockets and System V STREAMS in Unix-like environments, and Winsock for Microsoft Windows.
In computing, the Windows Sockets API (WSA), later shortened to Winsock, is a technical specification that defines how Windows network software should access network services, especially TCP/IP.

Open Data-Link Interface

ODI
Examples of these interfaces include ODI and NDIS in the Microsoft Windows and DOS environment.
This interface also enables one or more network drivers to support one or more protocol stacks.

OSI model

OSIOSI Reference Modellayer 2
User applications usually deal only with the topmost layers (see also OSI model).
If a mapping is available, presentation protocol data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units and passed down the protocol stack.

STREAMS

stream I/O
Examples of these interfaces include Berkeley sockets and System V STREAMS in Unix-like environments, and Winsock for Microsoft Windows.
Due to the typically close implementation coupling of the network and transport protocols in a given protocol stack, and the typical practice of implementing layers 5-7 outside of the kernel, only the link and transport layer STREAMS service interfaces were later standardized by X/Open.

Transmission Control Protocol

TCPTCP/IPACK
There is no way to indicate or control it in user space using Berkeley sockets and it is controlled by protocol stack only.

IBM Systems Network Architecture

SNAIBM's Systems Network ArchitectureSystems Network Architecture
IBM Systems Network Architecture
It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources.

Internet protocol suite

TCP/IPInternet protocolsIP
For example, this interface level would define how TCP/IP transport software would talk to the network interface controller.
The Internet protocol suite and the layered protocol stack design were in use before the OSI model was established.

Wireless Application Protocol

WAPWAP browserService Loading
Wireless Application Protocol
The WAP standard described a protocol suite or stack allowing the interoperability of WAP equipment and software with different network technologies, such as GSM and IS-95 (also known as CDMA).

DECnet

CCNET
DECnet
The DIGITAL Network Architecture has a set of documents which define the network architecture in general, state the specifications for each layer of the architecture, and describe the protocols which operate within each layer.

Ethernet

wiredJabbernetworking
In general, network protocol stack software will work similarly on all varieties.

Signalling System No. 7

SS7SS7 NetworkCCS7
Signalling System No. 7
The SS7 protocol stack may be partially mapped to the OSI Model of a packetized digital protocol stack.

Implementation

implementedimplementimplementing
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.

Modular programming

modulesmodularmodule
This modularization makes design and evaluation easier.

Abstraction layer

layersabstraction levellayer
Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others, they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
A particular operating system or platform will often have two well-defined software interfaces: one between the media and transport layers, and one between the transport layers and applications.

Device driver

driverdriversdevice drivers
The media-to-transport interface defines how transport protocol software makes use of particular media and hardware types and is associated with a device driver.

Network Driver Interface Specification

NDISminiportMicrosoft NDIS
Examples of these interfaces include ODI and NDIS in the Microsoft Windows and DOS environment.

Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCWin
Examples of these interfaces include ODI and NDIS in the Microsoft Windows and DOS environment.

DOS

PCprnCOM1
Examples of these interfaces include ODI and NDIS in the Microsoft Windows and DOS environment.

Web browser

browserweb browsersbrowsers
For example, this interface level would define how a web browser program would talk to TCP/IP transport software.

Berkeley sockets

socketssocketNetwork sockets
Examples of these interfaces include Berkeley sockets and System V STREAMS in Unix-like environments, and Winsock for Microsoft Windows.

Unix-like

*nixUnixlike
Examples of these interfaces include Berkeley sockets and System V STREAMS in Unix-like environments, and Winsock for Microsoft Windows.