Proverb

proverbsbywordSayingsproverbialby-wordAfrican proverbsbyspelByword (saying)English expressionEnglish proverbs
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple, concrete, traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth based on common sense or experience.wikipedia
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Saying

maximmaximssayings
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple, concrete, traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth based on common sense or experience.

Archer Taylor

Taylor, Archer
But giving the word "proverb" the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, and although scholars often quote Archer Taylor's argument that formulating a scientific "definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking... An incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial," many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize its essential characteristics.
Archer Taylor (1890–1973) was one of America's "foremost specialists in American and European folklore", with a special interest in cultural history, literature, proverbs, riddles and bibliography.

A rolling stone gathers no moss

rolling stoneThe Rolling Stone
Even within English-speaking cultures, there is difference of opinion on how to interpret the proverb "A rolling stone gathers no moss."
A rolling stone gathers no moss is an old proverb, credited to Publilius Syrus, who in his Sententiae states, People who are always moving, with no roots in one place or another, avoid responsibilities and cares. A common modern meaning is that a person must stay active to avoid stagnation.

It ain't over till the fat lady sings

fat ladyIt ain't over 'til the fat lady singsThe opera ain't over 'til the fat lady sings
It ain't over till (or until) the fat lady sings is a colloquialism which is often used as a proverb.

Formulaic language

automatic speechembolaliafilled" pause
Proverbs are often metaphorical and use formulaic language.
Along with idioms, expletives and proverbs, formulaic language includes pause fillers (e.g., "Like", "Er" or "Uhm") and conversational speech formulas (e.g., "You've got to be kidding," "Excuse me?"

Wellerism

Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, cliches, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other, closely related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, Wellerisms, maxims, quotations, and proverbial comparisons."
Typically a wellerism consists of three parts: a proverb or saying, a speaker, and an often humorously literal explanation.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away

an apple a day
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is a common English-language proverb of Welsh origin.

Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones

first look at yourselfthrow stones in glass houses
"Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones" is a proverb used in several European countries.

Alan Dundes

Dundes, AlanDundes
Alan Dundes, however, rejects including such sayings among truly proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically 'No!'" The definition of "proverb" has also changed over the years.
In this introductory course, students were introduced to the many various forms of folklore, from myth, legend, and folktale to proverbs and riddles to jokes, games, and folkspeech (slang), to folk belief and foodways.

Anti-proverb

Perverbanti-proverbsantiproverb
Sometimes proverbs (or portions of them or anti-proverbs) are used for titles, such as "A bird in the bush" by Lord Kennet and his stepson Peter Scott and "The blind leading the blind" by Lisa Mueller.
An anti-proverb or a perverb is the transformation of a standard proverb for humorous effect.

Beatitudes

BeatitudeEight BeatitudesThe Beatitudes
The twisted proverb of last title was also used in the Monty Python movie Life of Brian, where a person mishears one of Jesus Christ's beatitudes, "I think it was 'Blessed are the cheesemakers.'"
Each is a proverb-like proclamation, without narrative.

The milkmaid and her pail

Don't count your chickens before they hatchcounting her chickens before they hatchDo not count your chickens before they are hatched
And down tumbled with it her eggs, her chickens, her capons, her mare and foal, the whole lot.' This has led to the proverb "Don't count your chick(en)s until they hatch.In Britain the earliest appearance of the fable was in Bernard Mandeville's selection of adaptations from La Fontaine, which was published under the title Aesop dress'd (1704). The false connection with Aesop was continued by the story's reappearance in Robert Dodsley's Select fables of Esop and other fabulists (1761). Titled there “The country maid and her milk pail”, it is prefaced with the sentiment that 'when men suffer their imagination to amuse them with the prospect of distant and uncertain improvements of their condition, they frequently sustain real losses by their inattention to those affairs in which they are immediately concerned'. The story is briefly told and ends with the pail being dislodged when the girl scornfully tosses her head in rejection of all the young men at the dance she was to attend, wearing a new dress to be bought with the proceeds of her commercial activities.

Jack Aubrey

Captain Jack AubreyCaptain AubreyLucky" Jack Aubrey
In a slightly different use of reshaping proverbs, in the Aubrey–Maturin series of historical naval novels by Patrick O'Brian, Capt. Jack Aubrey humorously mangles and mis-splices proverbs, such as "Never count the bear's skin before it is hatched" and "There's a good deal to be said for making hay while the iron is hot."
He is noted for his mangling and mis-splicing of proverbs, sometimes with Maturin's involvement, such as “Never count the bear’s skin before it is hatched” and “There’s a good deal to be said for making hay while the iron is hot.”

Distinctive feature

distinctive featuresfeaturefeatures
Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, cliches, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other, closely related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, Wellerisms, maxims, quotations, and proverbial comparisons."
Distinctive features have also been used to distinguish proverbs from other types of language such as slogans, clichés, and aphorisms.

The blind leading the blind

blind leading the blindCan the blind lead the blind?
Sometimes proverbs (or portions of them or anti-proverbs) are used for titles, such as "A bird in the bush" by Lord Kennet and his stepson Peter Scott and "The blind leading the blind" by Lisa Mueller.
The phrase appears in Adagia, an annotated collection of Greek and Latin proverbs, compiled during the Renaissance by Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus.

Three wise monkeys

See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil🙊covering either their eyes, ears or mouth
Sometimes well-known proverbs are pictured on objects, without a text actually quoting the proverb, such as the three wise monkeys who remind us "Hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil".
The three wise monkeys are a Japanese pictorial maxim, embodying the proverbial principle "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil".

When in Rome, do as the Romans do

famous proverbWhen in RomeWhen in Rome, (do as the Romans do)
The band Splinter Group released an album titled When in Rome, Eat Lions.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do (often shortened to when in Rome...) or a later version when in Rome, do as the Pope does, a proverb attributed to Saint Ambrose.

T. E. Breitenbach

T.E. Breitenbach
These and similar paintings inspired another famous painting depicting some proverbs and also idioms (leading to a series of additional paintings), such as Proverbidioms by T. E. Breitenbach.
Thomas E. Breitenbach (born July 29, 1951 in Queens, New York) is a self-taught American artist best known for his painting Proverbidioms, a raucous and comical depiction of over 300 common proverbs and clichés.

Proverbidioms

These and similar paintings inspired another famous painting depicting some proverbs and also idioms (leading to a series of additional paintings), such as Proverbidioms by T. E. Breitenbach.
Proverbidioms is an oil painting by American artist T. E. Breitenbach depicting over 300 common proverbs, catchphrases, and clichés such as "You are what you eat", "a frog in the throat", and "kicked the bucket".

Éric Rohmer

Eric RohmerRohmerMaurice Schérer
Éric Rohmer, the French film director, directed a series of films, the "Comedies and Proverbs", where each film was based on a proverb: The Aviator's Wife, The Perfect Marriage, Pauline at the Beach, Full Moon in Paris (the film's proverb was invented by Rohmer himself: "The one who has two wives loses his soul, the one who has two houses loses his mind."), The Green Ray, Boyfriends and Girlfriends.
Later in 1980 Rohmer embarked on a second series of films: the "Comedies and Proverbs", where each film was based on a proverb.

Paremiography

proverb collectioncollection of proverbscollections of Afghan Proverbs
The most active field deliberately using proverbs is Christian ministry, where Joseph G. Healey and others have deliberately worked to catalyze the collection of proverbs from smaller languages and the application of them in a wide variety of church-related ministries, resulting in publications of collections and applications.
Paremiography (from Greek παροιμία - paroimía, "proverb, maxim, saw" and γράφω - grafō, "write, inscribe" ) is the study of the collection and writing of proverbs.

Afghan proverbs

Pashto proverbproverbs
U.S. Navy Captain Edward Zellem pioneered the use of Afghan proverbs as a positive relationship-building tool during the war in Afghanistan, and in 2012 he published two bilingual collections of Afghan proverbs in Dari and English, part of an effort of nationbuilding, followed by a volume of Pashto proverbs in 2014.
Across Afghanistan, proverbs are a valued part of speaking, both publicly and in conversations.

Folklore

folk talefolktalefolk
Collectively, they form a genre of folklore.
These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes.

Alexander Nevsky

Saint Alexander NevskySt. Alexander NevskyAleksandr Nevsky
Other studies of the use of proverbs in film include work by Kevin McKenna on the Russian film Aleksandr Nevsky, Haase's study of an adaptation of Little Red Riding Hood, Elias Dominguez Barajas on the film Viva Zapata!, and Aboneh Ashagrie on The Athlete (a movie in Amharic about Abebe Bikila).
In the picture, Nevsky used a number of Russian proverbs, tying Nevsky firmly to Russian tradition

Samuel Adalberg

In the 19th century, a growing number of scholars published collections of proverbs, such as Samuel Adalberg who published collections of Yiddish proverbs (1888 & 1890) and Polish proverbs (1889–1894).
He is best remembered for editing and publishing the first modern book on Polish proverbs.