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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALSLou GehrigLou Gehrig's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Motor neuron diseases include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), progressive bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA).

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathyCadasil syndrome
Vascular causes: bilateral hemisphere infarction, CADASIL syndrome
The disease progresses to subcortical dementia associated with pseudobulbar palsy and urinary incontinence.

Motor neuron disease

motor neurone diseaseAmyotrophic Lateral SclerosisLou Gehrig's disease
Various motor neuron diseases, especially those involving demyelination
According to ICD-11, the following disorders are counted among motor neuron diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive bulbar palsy (PBP), pseudobulbar palsy, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), as well as some rarer variants resembling ALS.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveParkinson's disease with hyperextension
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Pseudobulbar palsy

Dysphagia

difficulty swallowingdifficulty in swallowingpoor feeding
Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)

Pseudobulbar affect

emotional labilityemotionalismlabile
Labile affect
PBA has also been observed in association with a variety of other brain disorders, including brain tumors, Wilson's disease, syphilitic pseudobulbar palsy, and various encephalitides.

Bulbar palsy

asthenic bulbar paralysisbulbar paresis
Bulbar palsy, a similar syndrome caused by the damage of lower motor neurons.
In contrast, pseudobulbar palsy is a clinical syndrome similar to bulbar palsy but in which the damage is located in upper motor neurons of the corticobulbar tracts in the mid-pons (i.e., in the cranial nerves IX-XII), that is the nerve cells coming down from the cerebral cortex innervating the motor nuclei in the medulla.

Reflex

reflexesreflex actioninvoluntary action
Patients experience difficulty chewing and swallowing, have increased reflexes and spasticity in tongue and the bulbar region, and demonstrate slurred speech (which is often the initial presentation of the disorder), sometimes also demonstrating uncontrolled emotional outbursts.

Medulla oblongata

medullabulbarmedullary
Patients experience difficulty chewing and swallowing, have increased reflexes and spasticity in tongue and the bulbar region, and demonstrate slurred speech (which is often the initial presentation of the disorder), sometimes also demonstrating uncontrolled emotional outbursts.

Upper motor neuron

upperupper motor neuronsUMN
The condition is usually caused by the bilateral damage to corticobulbar pathways, which are upper motor neuron pathways that course from the cerebral cortex to nuclei of cranial nerves in the brain stem.

Brainstem

brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
The condition is usually caused by the bilateral damage to corticobulbar pathways, which are upper motor neuron pathways that course from the cerebral cortex to nuclei of cranial nerves in the brain stem.

Axon

axonsnerve fiberaxonal
Pseudobulbar palsy is the result of damage of motor fibers traveling from the cerebral cortex to the lower brain stem.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
Pseudobulbar palsy is the result of damage of motor fibers traveling from the cerebral cortex to the lower brain stem.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Vascular causes: bilateral hemisphere infarction, CADASIL syndrome

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson diseaseParkinson’s disease
Parkinson's disease and related multiple system atrophy

Multiple system atrophy

striatonigral degenerationmultiple system atrophy (MSA)shy-drager syndrome
Parkinson's disease and related multiple system atrophy

Demyelinating disease

demyelinationdemyelinating diseasesdemyelinating
Various motor neuron diseases, especially those involving demyelination This damage might arise in the course of a variety of neurological conditions that involve demyelination and bilateral corticobulbar lesions.

Multiple sclerosis

MSdisseminated sclerosisMultiple sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory disorders

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory disorders

Central pontine myelinolysis

osmotic demyelination syndromemyelinolysis, central pontinecentral pontine myelinosis
Metabolic causes: osmotic demyelination syndrome

Behçet's disease

behcet syndromeBehçetBehcet
Neurological involvement in Behçet's disease

Disinhibition

disinhibiteddisinhibitoryloss of inhibition
The proposed mechanism of pseudobulbar palsy points to the disinhibition of the motor neurons controlling laughter and crying, proposing that a reciprocal pathway exists between the cerebellum and the brain stem that adjusts laughter and crying responses, making them appropriate to context.

Motor neuron

motor neuronsmotormotor development
The proposed mechanism of pseudobulbar palsy points to the disinhibition of the motor neurons controlling laughter and crying, proposing that a reciprocal pathway exists between the cerebellum and the brain stem that adjusts laughter and crying responses, making them appropriate to context.

Subthalamic nucleus

Luys' bodynucleus of Luyssub-thalamic nucleus
The pseudobulbar crying could also be induced by stimulation in the region of the subthalamic nucleus of the brain.