Pseudoenzyme

pseudoenzymeslack the active site residuespseudoenzyme analysis
Pseudoenzymes are variants of enzymes (usually proteins) that are catalytically-deficient (usually inactive), meaning that they perform little or no enzyme catalysis.wikipedia
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Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Pseudoenzymes are variants of enzymes (usually proteins) that are catalytically-deficient (usually inactive), meaning that they perform little or no enzyme catalysis.
The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.

Pseudokinase

The most intensively analyzed, and certainly the best understood pseudoenzymes in terms of cellular signalling functions are probably the pseudokinases, the pseudoproteases and the pseudophosphatases.
Pseudokinases are catalytically-deficient pseudoenzyme variants of protein kinases that are represented in all kinomes across the kingdoms of life.

Enzyme catalysis

catalytic mechanisminduced fitenzymatic reaction
Pseudoenzymes are variants of enzymes (usually proteins) that are catalytically-deficient (usually inactive), meaning that they perform little or no enzyme catalysis.

Protein kinase

protein kinasestransmembranekinases
The best studied pseudoenzymes reside amongst various key signalling superfamilies of enzymes, such as the proteases, the protein kinases, protein phosphatases and ubiquitin modifying enzymes.
Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling.

Pseudoprotease

Pseudoproteases are catalytically-deficient pseudoenzyme variants of proteases that are represented across the kingdoms of life.

Protein moonlighting

moonlightingmoonlighting proteingene sharing
Their important regulatory and sometimes disease-associated functions in metabolic and signalling pathways are also shedding new light on the non-catalytic functions of active enzymes and the re-purposing of proteins in distinct cellular roles (Protein moonlighting).

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Pseudoenzymes are variants of enzymes (usually proteins) that are catalytically-deficient (usually inactive), meaning that they perform little or no enzyme catalysis.

Protein family

familyfamily of proteinsprotein families
They are believed to be represented in all major enzyme families in the kingdoms of life, where they have important signaling and metabolic functions, many of which are only now coming to light.

Kingdom (biology)

kingdomkingdomssubkingdom
They are believed to be represented in all major enzyme families in the kingdoms of life, where they have important signaling and metabolic functions, many of which are only now coming to light.

Bioinformatics

bioinformaticbioinformaticianbio-informatics
Pseudoenzymes are becoming increasingly important to analyse, especially as the bioinformatic analysis of genomes reveals their ubiquity.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
Pseudoenzymes are becoming increasingly important to analyse, especially as the bioinformatic analysis of genomes reveals their ubiquity.

Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathway
Their important regulatory and sometimes disease-associated functions in metabolic and signalling pathways are also shedding new light on the non-catalytic functions of active enzymes and the re-purposing of proteins in distinct cellular roles (Protein moonlighting).

Small molecule

small-moleculesmall moleculesnon-peptide
They are also suggesting new ways to target and interpret cellular signalling mechanisms using small molecules and drugs.

Sequence homology

orthologsorthologparalogs
The difference between enzymatically active and inactive homologues has been noted (and in some cases, understood when comparing catalytically active and inactive proteins residing in recognisable families) for some time at the sequence level, and some pseudoenzymes have also been referred to as 'prozymes' when they were analysed in protozoan parasites.

Protozoan infection

protozoanprotozoaprotozoal
The difference between enzymatically active and inactive homologues has been noted (and in some cases, understood when comparing catalytically active and inactive proteins residing in recognisable families) for some time at the sequence level, and some pseudoenzymes have also been referred to as 'prozymes' when they were analysed in protozoan parasites.

Protease

proteasespeptidaseproteinase
The best studied pseudoenzymes reside amongst various key signalling superfamilies of enzymes, such as the proteases, the protein kinases, protein phosphatases and ubiquitin modifying enzymes.

Ubiquitin

ubiquitinationubiquitylationubiquitinated
The best studied pseudoenzymes reside amongst various key signalling superfamilies of enzymes, such as the proteases, the protein kinases, protein phosphatases and ubiquitin modifying enzymes.

Proteasome

proteasomalproteosomeproteasomes
The α subunits are pseudoenzymes homologous to β subunits.

TRIB3

It is a pseudoenzyme that is thought to be a negative regulator of NF-kappaB, and can also sensitize cells to TNF- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

DNA polymerase

DNA polymerasespolymeraseDNA
Detailed classification divides family B in archaea into B1, B2, B3, in which B2 is a group of pseudoenzymes.

PA clan of proteases

PA clanPAPA superfamily
There are also several pseudoenzymes in the superfamily, where the catalytic triad residues have been mutated and so function as binding proteins.

TRIB1

a conserved family of proteins
Orthologs of this protein pseudokinase (pseudoenzyme) can be found almost ubiquitously throughout the animal kingdom.