Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
Two pairs of enantiomers: ephedrine (top) and pseudoephedrine (bottom)
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
A warning at an Australian pharmacy
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses.

- Pseudoephedrine

Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal or sinus congestion caused by the common cold, sinusitis, hay fever and other respiratory allergies; it is also used to relieve ear congestion caused by ear inflammation or infection.

- Stimulant
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

8 related topics

Alpha

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)

Ephedrine

Medication and stimulant.

Medication and stimulant.

Ephedrine Sulphate (1932), Ephedrine Compound (1932), and Swan-Myers Ephedrine Inhalant No. 66 (circa 1940)
Ephedrine tablets
Proposed biosynthetic pathway of ephedrine from L -phenylalanine and pyruvic acid.
The four stereoisomers of ephedrine
<center>Norephedrine</center>
<center>Ephedrine</center>
<center>N-Methylephedrine</center>

Both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine increase blood pressure and act as bronchodilators, with pseudoephedrine having considerably less effect.

L -ephedrine, and particularly its stereoisomer norpseudoephedrine (which is also present in Catha edulis) has indirect sympathomimetic effects and due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, it is a CNS stimulant similar to amphetamines, but less pronounced, as it releases noradrenaline and dopamine in the substantia nigra.

The structural formula of phenethylamine with marked substitution points. Phenethylamine is obtained when R2=R3=R4=R5=R6=RN=Rα=Rβ=H.

Substituted phenethylamine

Composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

Composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.

The structural formula of phenethylamine with marked substitution points. Phenethylamine is obtained when R2=R3=R4=R5=R6=RN=Rα=Rβ=H.
The structural formula of phenethylamine

Many substituted phenethylamines are psychoactive drugs which belong to a variety of different drug classes, including central nervous system stimulants (e.g., amphetamine), hallucinogens (e.g., dl-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOM), entactogens (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA), appetite suppressants (e.g. phentermine), nasal decongestants and bronchodilators (e.g., levomethamphetamine and pseudoephedrine), antidepressants (e.g. bupropion and phenelzine), antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others.

Racemic amphetamine skeleton

Substituted amphetamine

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.

Racemic amphetamine skeleton
This shows phenethylamine in blue with its substitution points marked. Amphetamine and its substituted derivatives contain a CH3 group at the alpha-position (Rα).
This shows amphetamine with its substitution points marked, excluding the N-position at the NH2 group which is unmarked.
Amphetamine pills

The compounds in this class span a variety of pharmacological subclasses, including stimulants, empathogens, and hallucinogens, among others.

Ephedra was used 5000 years ago in China as a medicinal plant; its active ingredients are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (cathine).

The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

Alkaloid

Alkaloids are a class of basic, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom.

Alkaloids are a class of basic, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom.

The first individual alkaloid, morphine, was isolated in 1804 from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
The article that introduced the concept of "alkaloid".
Friedrich Sertürner, the German chemist who first isolated morphine from opium.
Bufotenin, an alkaloid from some toads, contains an indole core, and is produced in living organisms from the amino acid tryptophan.
The nicotine molecule contains both pyridine (left) and pyrrolidine rings (right).
Head of a lamb born by a sheep that ate leaves of the corn lily plant. The cyclopia is induced by the cyclopamine present in the plant.
Strychnine tree. Its seeds are rich in strychnine and brucine.
Crystals of piperine extracted from black pepper.
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Voacamine
Villalstonine
Toxiferine
Dauricine
Tubocurarine
Carpaine
Thebaine
Naloxone

Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine), and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs.

For example, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are used to produce methcathinone and methamphetamine.

An impure tablet sold as MDMA seized by law enforcement in the United States. The tablet was determined to contain no MDMA; instead, it contained a mixture of BZP, methamphetamine, and caffeine.

Clandestine chemistry

Chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

Chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.

An impure tablet sold as MDMA seized by law enforcement in the United States. The tablet was determined to contain no MDMA; instead, it contained a mixture of BZP, methamphetamine, and caffeine.

The two predominant methods which appeared both involve the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine.

from Portuguese oxidado) is a stimulant drug based on cocaine paste originally developed in the Brazilian Amazon forest region.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a single-celled prokaryote

Sympathomimetic drug

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a single-celled prokaryote

Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart).

Known reports of such hypersensitivity reactions include the use of pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanlolamine, methamphetamine and other drugs at prescribed doses as well as at over-doses.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

Controlled Substances Act

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

αMT (alpha-methyltryptamine), a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class that was originally developed as an antidepressant by workers at Upjohn in the 1960s.

In addition to the CSA, due to pseudoephedrine (PSE) and ephedrine being widely used in the manufacture of methamphetamine, the U.S. Congress passed the Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act which places restrictions on the sale of any medicine containing pseudoephedrine.

Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup

Dextromethorphan

Medication most often used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines.

Medication most often used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines.

Store brand dextromethorphan cough syrup
Main metabolic pathways of dextromethorphan degradation, which are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT).
Racemate separation for synthesis of Dextromethorphan
Dextromethorphan gel capsules

It is in the morphinan class of medications with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at lower doses).

Some states have restricted the sale of dextromethorphan to adults or put other restrictions on its purchase in place, similar to those for pseudoephedrine.