Pseudoscience

pseudoscientificpseudo-scientificpseudo-sciencepseudoscientistpseudosciencespseudoscientistsbad sciencepseudoscientific principlefringelack a scientifically plausible rationale
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.wikipedia
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Falsifiability

falsifiableunfalsifiablefalsification
Pseudoscience is often characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; reliance on confirmation bias rather than rigorous attempts at refutation; lack of openness to evaluation by other experts; absence of systematic practices when developing hypotheses; and continued adherence long after the pseudoscientific hypotheses have been experimentally discredited.
Declaring an unfalsifiable theory to be scientific would then be pseudoscience.

Astrology

astrologerastrologicalastrologers
Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alchemy, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs and creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Some modern pseudosciences, such as astrology and acupuncture, originated before the scientific era.
Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects.

Alternative medicine

complementary and alternative medicineholistic healthintegrative medicine
Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alchemy, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs and creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy.
Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological plausibility and is untested, untestable or proven ineffective.

Demarcation problem

demarcationproblem of demarcationdemarcate
The demarcation between science and pseudoscience has philosophical and scientific implications.
The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science and epistemology is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs.

Homeopathy

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For example, pseudoscientific anti-vaccine activism and promotion of homeopathic remedies as alternative disease treatments can result in people forgoing important medical treatment with demonstrable health benefits.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine.

Creation science

scientific creationismCreation biologycreation-science
Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alchemy, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs and creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Examples of this ideological process are creation science and intelligent design, which were developed in response to the scientific theory of evolution.
Creation science is a pseudoscientific attempt to map the Bible into scientific facts.

Phrenology

phrenologistphrenologicalcraniology
An earlier use of the term was in 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie, that refers to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day".
Phrenology is a pseudoscience which involves the measurement of bumps on the skull to predict mental traits.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.
The systematic, careful collection of measurements or counts of relevant quantities is often the critical difference between pseudo-sciences, such as alchemy, and science, such as chemistry or biology.

Science education

Sciencescience educatorscience teacher
Differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies and science education.

History of pseudoscience

In the history of science and the history of pseudoscience it can be especially difficult to separate the two, because some sciences developed from pseudosciences.
A pseudoscience is a set of ideas that presents itself as science, while it does not meet the criteria to properly be called such.

Acupuncture

acupuncturistacupuncture pointacupuncture points
Some modern pseudosciences, such as astrology and acupuncture, originated before the scientific era.
Acupuncture is a pseudoscience because the theories and practices of TCM are not based on scientific knowledge, and it has been characterized as quackery.

Intelligent design

intelligent design theoryEvolutionary informaticssupernatural creation
Examples of this ideological process are creation science and intelligent design, which were developed in response to the scientific theory of evolution.

The Demon-Haunted World

The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the DarkThe Demon Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark
Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be falsifiable was stated in Carl Sagan's publication The Demon-Haunted World when he discusses an invisible dragon that he has in his garage.
He explains methods to help distinguish between ideas that are considered valid science and those that can be considered pseudoscience.

Lysenkoism

LysenkoistLysenko affairideas
Others developed as part of an ideology, such as Lysenkoism, or as a response to perceived threats to an ideology.
The pseudo-scientific ideas of Lysenkoism assumed the heritability of acquired characteristics (Lamarckism).

Carl Sagan

Sagan, CarlSaganDr. Carl Sagan
Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be falsifiable was stated in Carl Sagan's publication The Demon-Haunted World when he discusses an invisible dragon that he has in his garage.
Sagan was also known for his popularization of science, his efforts to increase scientific understanding among the general public, and his positions in favor of scientific skepticism and against pseudoscience, such as his debunking of the Betty and Barney Hill abduction.

Ghost

ghostsapparitionwraith
The items were "extrasensory perception (ESP), that houses can be haunted, ghosts, telepathy, clairvoyance, astrology, that people can communicate mentally with someone who has died, witches, reincarnation, and channelling".
Their existence is impossible to falsify, and ghost hunting has been classified as pseudoscience.

Michael Shermer

Shermer, Michael
Michael Shermer's theory of belief-dependent realism is driven by the belief that the brain is essentially a "belief engine" which scans data perceived by the senses and looks for patterns and meaning.
Michael Brant Shermer (born September 8, 1954) is an American science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor-in-chief of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating pseudoscientific and supernatural claims.

Telepathy

telepathictelepathtelepathically
The items were "extrasensory perception (ESP), that houses can be haunted, ghosts, telepathy, clairvoyance, astrology, that people can communicate mentally with someone who has died, witches, reincarnation, and channelling".
There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, and the topic is generally considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience.

Clairvoyance

clairvoyantseerclairvoyants
The items were "extrasensory perception (ESP), that houses can be haunted, ghosts, telepathy, clairvoyance, astrology, that people can communicate mentally with someone who has died, witches, reincarnation, and channelling".
Parapsychology, including the study of clairvoyance, is an example of pseudoscience.

Anecdotal evidence

anecdotalanecdotesMisleading vividness
Anecdotal evidence is often unscientific or pseudoscientific because various forms of cognitive bias may affect the collection or presentation of evidence.

Mario Bunge

Bunge, MarioMario '''BungeM. Bunge
During 1983, Mario Bunge has suggested the categories of "belief fields" and "research fields" to help distinguish between pseudoscience and science, where the former is primarily personal and subjective and the latter involves a certain systematic method.
Popularly, he is known for his remarks considering psychoanalysis as an example of pseudoscience.

Psychoanalysis

psychoanalystpsychoanalyticpsychoanalytical
Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einstein's theory of relativity as an example of science.
Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not falsifiable.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
The demarcation between science and pseudoscience has philosophical and scientific implications.
An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is sometimes referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science.

Reproducibility

reproduciblereplicabilityreproduce
Experimental results should be reproducible and verified by other researchers.

Woozle effect

Gambrill (2012) links the woozle effect to the processes that create pseudoscience.