The "Classic 5" lineup of the Temptations in 1967. Clockwise from top: David Ruffin, Melvin Franklin, Otis Williams, Eddie Kendricks, and Paul Williams.
The Chambers Brothers in 1970
A promotional image of the original early 1960s Temptations lineup. Clockwise from top right: Otis Williams, Paul Williams, Melvin Franklin, Eddie Kendricks, and Elbridge "Al" Bryant.
The Temptations perform on The Ed Sullivan Show in September 1969. Left to right: Otis Williams, Melvin Franklin, Eddie Kendricks, Paul Williams, and Dennis Edwards.
The Temptations on stage at London's Royal Albert Hall, November 2005. Pictured L-R: Joe Herndon, Otis Williams, G.C. Cameron, Terry Weeks, and Ron Tyson.

The group's work with producer Norman Whitfield, beginning with the Top 10 hit single "Cloud Nine" in October 1968, pioneered psychedelic soul, and was significant in the evolution of R&B and soul music.

- The Temptations

Pioneering acts working in the genre included Sly and the Family Stone, Jimi Hendrix, Isaac Hayes, and the Temptations.

- Psychedelic soul
The "Classic 5" lineup of the Temptations in 1967. Clockwise from top: David Ruffin, Melvin Franklin, Otis Williams, Eddie Kendricks, and Paul Williams.

9 related topics

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The Doors in 1968

Cloud Nine (The Temptations song)

The Doors in 1968

"Cloud Nine" is a 1968 hit single recorded by The Temptations for the Motown label.

It was the first of their singles to feature Dennis Edwards instead of David Ruffin in the lineup, was the first of producer Norman Whitfield's psychedelic soul tracks, and won Motown its first Grammy Award.

Norman Whitfield's The Temptations

Norman Whitfield

American songwriter and producer, who worked with Berry Gordy's Motown labels during the 1960s.

American songwriter and producer, who worked with Berry Gordy's Motown labels during the 1960s.

Norman Whitfield's The Temptations

He has been credited as one of the creators of the Motown Sound and of the late-1960s subgenre of psychedelic soul.

Whitfield worked extensively with The Temptations as a producer and songwriter, producing eight of their albums between 1969 and 1973.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists

Soul music

Popular music genre that originated in the African American community throughout the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Popular music genre that originated in the African American community throughout the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists
Ray Charles pioneered the soul music genre during the 1950s by combining blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel styles
James Brown was known as the "Godfather of Soul"
Sam Cooke is acknowledged as one of soul music's "forefathers".
Solomon Burke recorded for Atlantic in the 1960s
Aretha Franklin is widely known as the "Queen of Soul"
Marvin Gaye shifted to a soul sound with his 1971 hit "What's Going On"
Levi Stubbs singing lead with the Four Tops in 1966
Soul singer Otis Redding was an electrifying stage presence
Isaac Hayes performing in 1973
Adele performing in 2016

By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic and progressive rock, among other genres, leading to psychedelic and progressive soul.

"Soul" became an umbrella term for an increasingly wide variety of R&B-based music styles – from the dance and pop-oriented acts at Motown Records in Detroit, such as the Temptations, Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder, to "deep soul" performers such as Percy Sledge and James Carr.

John Lennon rehearses "Give Peace a Chance", 1969.

Runaway Child, Running Wild

John Lennon rehearses "Give Peace a Chance", 1969.

"Runaway Child, Running Wild" (shown as "Run Away Child, Running Wild" on the label of the original single) is a 1969 hit single for the Gordy (Motown) label, performed by The Temptations and produced by Norman Whitfield.

The single was both the second from their landmark Cloud Nine LP, and the second of their "psychedelic soul" tracks penned by Whitfield and former Motown artist Barrett Strong.

The Undisputed Truth

The Undisputed Truth was an American Motown recording act, assembled by record producer Norman Whitfield as a means for being able to experiment with his psychedelic soul production techniques.

In 1970, Motown producer Norman Whitfield - partly as a response to criticism from Temptations fans that he was using the group as his personal plaything - put together Joe Harris, Billie Calvin and Brenda Evans to create his own recording act, The Undisputed Truth.

Sly and the Family Stone in 1968. Left to right: Freddie Stone, Sly Stone, Rose Stone, Larry Graham, Cynthia Robinson, Jerry Martini, and Greg Errico.

Sly and the Family Stone

American band from San Francisco.

American band from San Francisco.

Sly and the Family Stone in 1968. Left to right: Freddie Stone, Sly Stone, Rose Stone, Larry Graham, Cynthia Robinson, Jerry Martini, and Greg Errico.
The Woodstock Music and Art Festival, at which Sly and the Family Stone performed on August 17, 1969.
The band's 1975 performance at Radio City Music Hall (shown 2003) was only one-eighth filled
Sly Stone performing with the Family Stone in 2007.

Formed in 1966, the group's music synthesized a variety of disparate musical genres to help pioneer the emerging "psychedelic soul" sound.

Some musicians changed their sound completely to co-opt that of Sly and the Family Stone, most notably Motown in-house producer Norman Whitfield, who took his main act The Temptations into "psychedelic soul" territory starting with the Grammy-winning "Cloud Nine" in 1968.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists

Cinematic soul

Genre of soul music with a "cinematic" style, combining traditional rock / soul arrangements with orchestral instruments.

Genre of soul music with a "cinematic" style, combining traditional rock / soul arrangements with orchestral instruments.

Al Green (1973), one of the genre's major pioneering artists

During their psychedelic soul period of 1968-73, The Temptations created what is described as "cinematic soul", songs, often long in length, with longer instrumental introductions and detailed orchestration.

James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973

Funk

For other uses, see Funk (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Funk (disambiguation).

James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973
The rhythm section of a funk band—the electric bass, drums, electric guitar and keyboards--is the heartbeat of the funk sound. Pictured here is the Meters.
Simple kick and snare funk motif. The kick first sounds two onbeats, which are then answered by two offbeats. The snare sounds the backbeat.
A thirteenth chord (E 13, which also contains a flat 7th and a 9th)
Bootsy Collins performing in 1996 with a star-shaped bass
The drum groove from "Cissy Strut"
Guitarist Nile Rodgers is best known for his performances with Chic.
Isaac Hayes playing keyboards in 1973
Singer Charlie Wilson
Funk horn sections typically include saxophones and trumpets. Larger horn sections often add a second instrument for one of the saxes or trumpets, and a trombone or bari sax may also be used. Pictured is the Earth, Wind and Fire horn section.
James Brown, a progenitor of funk music
George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic in 2006
The Original Family Stone live, 2006. Jerry Martini, Rose Stone, and Cynthia Robinson
Prince was an influential multi-instrumentalist, bandleader, singer and songwriter.
Me'shell Ndegeocello playing electric bass
Talking Heads combined funk with elements of art rock.
Dr. Dre (pictured in 2011) was one of the influential creators of G-funk.
Chaka Khan (born 1953) has been called the "Queen of Funk".
Janelle Monáe (born 1985) is part of a new wave of female funk artists.

In contrast to earlier bands such as The Temptations, which wore "matching suits" and "neat haircuts" to appeal to white mainstream audiences, funk bands adopted an "African spirit" in their outfits and style.

The Temptations, who had previously helped to define the "Motown Sound" – a distinct blend of pop-soul – adopted this new psychedelic sound towards the end of the 1960s as well.

The ceiling of an Arlington, Texas, discothèque

Disco

Genre of dance music and a subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene.

Genre of dance music and a subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene.

The ceiling of an Arlington, Texas, discothèque
Disco bass pattern.
Rock & disco drum patterns: disco features greater subdivision of the beat, which is four-to-the-floor
Blue disco quad roller skates.
Major disco clubs had lighted dance floors, with the lights flashing to complement the beat.
The reflective light disco ball was a fixture on the ceilings of many discothèques.
Disco dancers typically wore loose slacks for men and flowing dresses for women, which enabled ease of movement on the dance floor.
Dancers at an East German discothèque in 1977
Gloria Gaynor in 1976
Diana Ross in 1976
ABBA in 1974.
Italian composer Giorgio Moroder is known as the "Father of Disco".
Donna Summer in 1977
Dalida in 1967.
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The a cappella jazz group the Manhattan Transfer had a disco hit with the 1979 "Twilight Zone/Twilight Tone" theme.
A man wearing a "disco sucks" T-shirt.
Classic DJ Station. A DJ mixer is placed between two Technics SL-1200 MK 2 turntables.
Disco dance performance at the 30th anniversary of Kontula in Helsinki, Finland, in 1994
Like disco, house music was based around DJs creating mixes for dancers in clubs. Pictured is DJ Miguel Migs, mixing using CDJ players.
Strobing lights flash at a rave dance event in Vienna, 2005
Students from Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City dancing to disco during a cultural event on campus
British singer Dua Lipa has been credited by music critics with leading the revival of disco following the widespread international success of her single "Don't Start Now" and her album Future Nostalgia.

Partly through the success of Jimi Hendrix, psychedelic elements that were popular in rock music of the late 1960s found their way into soul and early funk music and formed the subgenre psychedelic soul.

Examples can be found in the music of the Chambers Brothers, George Clinton with his Parliament-Funkadelic collective, Sly and the Family Stone and the productions of Norman Whitfield with The Temptations.