Psychiatric hospital

Traverse City State Hospital, Traverse City, Michigan
Niuvanniemi Hospital, Niuva, Kuopio, Finland
Administration Building at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts. McLean is noted for having once treated several New Englanders of renown, including Massachusetts Governor Nathaniel P. Banks, musician James Taylor, and poet Anne Sexton.
The York Retreat was built by William Tuke, a pioneer of moral treatment for the mentally ill.
The Republican Vilnius Psychiatric Hospital in Naujoji Vilnia (Parko g. 15), is one of the largest health facilities in Lithuania; built in 1902, it officially opened on 21 May 1903.
Art Nouveau styled Röykkä Hospital, formerly known as Nummela Sanatorium, in Röykkä, Finland.
Vienna's Narrenturm—German for "fools' tower"—was one of the earliest buildings specifically designed for mentally ill people. It was built in 1784.

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental health units or behavioral health units, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

- Psychiatric hospital

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Psychiatry

Medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.

The word psyche comes from the ancient Greek for 'soul' or 'butterfly'. The fluttering insect appears in the coat of arms of Britain's Royal College of Psychiatrists.
NIMH federal agency patient room for Psychiatric research, Maryland, USA
Dr. Philippe Pinel at the Salpêtrière, 1795 by Tony Robert-Fleury. Pinel ordering the removal of chains from patients at the Paris Asylum for insane women.
Otto Loewi's work led to the identification of the first neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

An inpatient may be treated in a psychiatric hospital.

Bipolar disorder

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally-elevated happiness that last from days to weeks each.

Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Bipolar mood shifts
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with hilarious mania
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'
'Melancholy' by William Bagg, after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder.
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children.
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century.
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokesperson for mental illness.

Admission to a psychiatric hospital may be required if a person is a risk to themselves or others; involuntary treatment is sometimes necessary if the affected person refuses treatment.

Philippe Pinel

French physician, precursor of psychiatry and incidentally a zoologist.

Philippe Pinel, portrait by Anna Mérimée
Bust of Philippe Pinel on the Pinel Memorial, Royal Edinburgh Hospital
Dr. Philippe Pinel at the Salpêtrière, 1795 by Tony Robert-Fleury. Pinel ordering the removal of chains from patients at the Paris Asylum for insane women.
Pinel freeing the insane from their chains, 1876 by Tony Robert-Fleury

He was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.

Deinstitutionalisation

The former St Elizabeth's Hospital in 2006, closed and boarded up. Located in Washington D.C., the hospital had been one of the sites of the Rosenhan experiment in the 1970s.
Vienna's Narrenturm—German for "fools' tower"—was one of the earliest buildings specifically designed for mentally ill people. It was built in 1784.
St. Loman's Hospital, Mullingar, Ireland, an infamous psychiatric hospital.
The water tower of Park Prewett Hospital in Basingstoke, Hampshire. The hospital was redeveloped into a housing estate after its closure in 1997.
President John F. Kennedy signs the Community Mental Health Act on 31 October 1963.

Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

Psychiatric medication

Psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.

Ritalin sustained-release (SR) 20 mg tablets

It meant that more patients could be treated without the need for confinement in a psychiatric hospital.

Involuntary treatment

Involuntary treatment (also referred to by proponents as assisted treatment and by critics as forced drugging) refers to medical treatment undertaken without the consent of the person being treated.

Man in restraint chair in an English asylum in 1869
Standard modern day restraints
Protest graffiti against Involuntary treatment, Turin; TSO = MORTE means Involuntary treatment = Death

Such treatment normally happens in a psychiatric hospital after some form of involuntary commitment, though individuals may be compelled to undergo treatment outside of hospitals via outpatient commitment.

Broadmoor Hospital

Broadmoor in 2006
The asylum in 1867
Building work at Broadmoor-aerial 2015
Plan of hospital

Broadmoor Hospital is a high-security psychiatric hospital in Crowthorne, Berkshire, England.

Lunatic asylum

Social alienation was one of the main themes in Francisco Goya's masterpieces, such as The Madhouse (above).
Plan of the Bethlem Royal Hospital, an early public asylum for the mentally ill
Eastern State Hospital was the first psychiatric institution to be founded in the United States.
Dr. Philippe Pinel at the Salpêtrière, 1795 by Tony Robert-Fleury. Pinel ordering the removal of chains from patients at the Paris Asylum for insane women.
The joint counties' lunatic asylum, erected at Abergavenny, 1850
The York Retreat (c. 1796) was built by William Tuke, a pioneer of moral treatment for the insane.
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, a vigorous campaigner for the reform of lunacy law in England, and the Head of the Lunacy Commission for 40 years.
William A. F. Browne was an influential reformer of the lunatic asylum in the mid-19th century, and an advocate of the new 'science' of phrenology.
Egas Moniz pioneered the field of psychosurgery with the lobotomy of a patient's frontal lobes in 1935.
Leningrad Special Psychiatric Hospital of Prison Type of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs was a psychiatric institution used by the Soviet authorities to suppress dissent.
Advertisement for Thorazine (chlorpromazine) from the early 1960s
Views of Toledo State Hospital for the Insane

The lunatic asylum (alternatively mental asylum or insane asylum) was an early precursor of the modern psychiatric hospital.

The Retreat

Place in England for the treatment of people with mental health needs.

York Retreat original building c. 1796

Opened in 1796, it is famous for having pioneered the so-called "moral treatment" that became a behaviour model for asylums around the world with mental health issues.

Hospital

Health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized health science and auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment.

Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus
Royal Brompton Hospital is one of the biggest heart and lung hospitals in the world.
During peacetime, hospitals can be indicated by a variety of symbols. For example, a white 'H' on a blue background is often used in the United States. During times of armed conflict, a hospital may be marked with the emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red crystal in accordance with the Geneva Conventions.
Starship Children's Health is a children's hospital in Auckland, New Zealand
McMaster University Medical Centre is a teaching hospital in Hamilton, Ontario
Hospital beds per 1000 people 2013.
Hospital beds per inhabitants
Resuscitation room bed after a trauma intervention, showing the highly technical equipment of modern hospitals
View of the Askleipion of Kos, the best preserved instance of an Asklepieion.
Ruins of a two thousand-year-old hospital were discovered in the historical city of Anuradhapura Mihintale Sri Lanka
Entrance to the Qalawun complex in Cairo, Egypt which housed the notable Mansuri hospital.
A hospital ward in sixteenth century France.
1820 Engraving of Guy's Hospital in London one of the first voluntary hospitals to be established in 1724
Ruins of the Hospital San Nicolás de Bari in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, recognized by UNESCO for being the oldest hospital built in the Americas. Built between 1514 and 1541.
Pennsylvania Hospital (now part of University of Pennsylvania Health System). Founded in 1751, it is the earliest established public hospital in the United States. It is also home to America's first surgical amphitheatre and its first medical library.
A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Florence Nightingale worked and helped to restructure the modern hospital
Clinical Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb, Croatia
The medical center at the University of Virginia shows the growing trend for modern architecture in hospitals.
The National Health Service Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in the UK, showing the utilitarian architecture of many modern hospitals
Hospital chapel at Fawcett Memorial Hospital (Port Charlotte, Florida)
Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai
An intensive care unit (ICU) within a hospital
Uniklinikum Aachen in Germany
Tampere University Hospital in Tampere, Finland
All India Institute of Medical Sciences in Delhi, India
Lehigh Valley Hospital in Allentown, Pennsylvania
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami's Health District, the primary teaching hospital for the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds

Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment (see psychiatric hospital) and certain disease categories.