Psychoacoustics

psychoacousticpsychoacoustic modelpsychoacousticalperceptualpsycho-acousticssound perceptionacousticalaudibleBackward maskingePAC encoder
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology – how humans perceive various sounds.wikipedia
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Sound

audiosound wavesound waves
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology – how humans perceive various sounds.
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.

Music

audiomusicalPop
More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including noise, speech and music).
Since the emergence of the study of psychoacoustics in the 1930s, most lists of elements of music have related more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it or study it. C.E. Seashore, in his book Psychology of Music, identified four "psychological attributes of sound".

Loudness

volumeloudBlare
In addition, the ear has a nonlinear response to sounds of different intensity levels; this nonlinear response is called loudness.
The study of apparent loudness is included in the topic of psychoacoustics and employs methods of psychophysics.

MP3

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Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact. Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding or as psychoacoustic modeling.

Bark scale

Bark
Other scales have been derived directly from experiments on human hearing perception, such as the mel scale and Bark scale (these are used in studying perception, but not usually in musical composition), and these are approximately logarithmic in frequency at the high-frequency end, but nearly linear at the low-frequency end.
The Bark scale is a psychoacoustical scale proposed by Eberhard Zwicker in 1961.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact.
A number of popular compression formats exploit these perceptual differences, including psychoacoustics for sound, and psychovisuals for images and video.

Windows Media Audio

WMAXMA.wma
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
WMA is a lossy audio codec based on the study of psychoacoustics.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
The psychoacoustic model provides for high quality lossy signal compression by describing which parts of a given digital audio signal can be removed (or aggressively compressed) safely—that is, without significant losses in the (consciously) perceived quality of the sound.
The psychoacoustic model describes how sound can be highly compressed without degrading perceived quality.

Psychophysics

psychophysicalpsychophysicistpsycho-physics
It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics.
Psychoacoustics

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC/AAC+/eAAC+.aac
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
The frequency domain signal is quantized based on a psychoacoustic model and encoded.

Music psychology

music cognitionpsychology of musicmusic perception
Psychoacoustics includes topics and studies that are relevant to music psychology and music therapy.
Originally arising in fields of psychoacoustics and sensation, cognitive theories of how people understand music more recently encompass neuroscience, cognitive science, music theory, music therapy, computer science, psychology, philosophy, and linguistics.

Robert Taylor (computer scientist)

Robert TaylorBob TaylorRobert W. Taylor
Internet pioneers J. C. R. Licklider and Bob Taylor both completed graduate-level work in psychoacoustics, while BBN Technologies originally specialized in consulting on acoustics issues before it began building the first packet-switched computer networks.
Reflecting his background in experimental psychology and mathematics, he completed research in neuroscience, psychoacoustics and the auditory nervous system as a graduate student.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. Licklider Licklider, J. C. R.Dr. J. C. R. Licklider
Internet pioneers J. C. R. Licklider and Bob Taylor both completed graduate-level work in psychoacoustics, while BBN Technologies originally specialized in consulting on acoustics issues before it began building the first packet-switched computer networks.
He received a Ph.D. in psychoacoustics from the University of Rochester in 1942.

Equivalent rectangular bandwidth

ERB-rateERB-rate scale
Equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB)
The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.

MiniDisc

MDmini discHi-MD
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
Sony's ATRAC codec differs from uncompressed PCM in that it is a psychoacoustic lossy audio data reduction scheme and is such that the recorded signal does not require decompression on replay.

Absolute threshold of hearing

threshold of hearingthresholdauditory threshold
By measuring this minimum intensity for testing tones of various frequencies, a frequency dependent absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) curve may be derived.
Psychoacoustics

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP22II
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
Like MP3, MP2 is a perceptual coding format, which means that it removes information that the human auditory system will not be able to easily perceive. To choose which information to remove, the audio signal is analyzed according to a psychoacoustic model, which takes into account the parameters of the human auditory system. Research into psychoacoustics has shown that if there is a strong signal on a certain frequency, then weaker signals at frequencies close to the strong signal's frequency cannot be perceived by the human auditory system. This is called frequency masking. Perceptual audio codecs take advantage of this frequency masking by ignoring information at frequencies that are deemed to be imperceptible, thus allowing more data to be allocated to the reproduction of perceptible frequencies.

Precedence effect

HaasHaas effect
Haas effect
The precedence effect or law of the first wavefront is a binaural psychoacoustical effect.

Pitch (music)

pitchpitchestone
Pitch (music)
Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound.

Timbre

timbraltonetone color
Timbre
In music, timbre (, also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.

Sound localization

binaural hearingsound localisationbinaural
Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound source.
Psychoacoustics

Chalkboard scraping

fingernails on a chalkboardnails on a chalkboardnails-across-the-blackboard
Sound of fingernails scraping chalkboard
The basis of the innate reaction to the sound has been studied in the field of psychoacoustics (the branch of psychology concerned with the perception of sound and its physiological effects).

Hypersonic effect

Hypersonic effect
It is a common understanding in psychoacoustics that the ear cannot respond to sounds at such high frequency via an air-conduction pathway, so one question that this research raised was: does the hypersonic effect occur via the "ordinary" route of sound travelling through the air passage in the ear, or in some other way?

Auditory masking

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Temporal masking
Psychoacoustics

Musical tuning

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Musical tuning
Due to the psychoacoustic interaction of tones and timbres, various tone combinations sound more or less "natural" in combination with various timbres.