Psychoacoustics

psychoacousticpsychoacoustic modelperceptual codingpsychoacousticalsound perceptionperceptualpsycho-acousticspsychoacousticallyacousticalaudible
Psychoacoustics is the branch of psychophysics involving the scientific study of sound perception and audiology—how humans perceive various sounds.wikipedia
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Sound

audiosound wavesound waves
Psychoacoustics is the branch of psychophysics involving the scientific study of sound perception and audiology—how humans perceive various sounds.
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.

Music

audiomusicalPop
More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological responses associated with sound (including noise, speech, and music).
Since the emergence of the study of psychoacoustics in the 1930s, most lists of elements of music have related more to how we hear music than how we learn to play it or study it.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadMP3 files
Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact. Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding or as psychoacoustic modeling.

Loudness

volumeloudBlare
In addition, the ear has a nonlinear response to sounds of different intensity levels; this nonlinear response is called loudness.
The study of apparent loudness is included in the topic of psychoacoustics and employs methods of psychophysics.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
Data compression techniques, such as MP3, make use of this fact.
A number of popular compression formats exploit these perceptual differences, including psychoacoustics for sound, and psychovisuals for images and video.

Bark scale

Bark
Other scales have been derived directly from experiments on human hearing perception, such as the mel scale and Bark scale (these are used in studying perception, but not usually in musical composition), and these are approximately logarithmic in frequency at the high-frequency end, but nearly linear at the low-frequency end.
The Bark scale is a psychoacoustical scale proposed by Eberhard Zwicker in 1961.

Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital 5.1AC3AC-3
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
Dolby Laboratories adapted the MDCT algorithm along with perceptual coding principles to develop the AC-3 audio format for cinema needs.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
The psychoacoustic model provides for high quality lossy signal compression by describing which parts of a given digital audio signal can be removed (or aggressively compressed) safely—that is, without significant losses in the (consciously) perceived quality of the sound.
In the case of audio data, a popular form of transform coding is perceptual coding, which transforms the raw data to a domain that more accurately reflects the information content.

Psychophysics

psychophysicalpsychophysicistHistory of psychophysics
Psychoacoustics is the branch of psychophysics involving the scientific study of sound perception and audiology—how humans perceive various sounds.

Windows Media Audio

WMAWMA LosslessWMA Pro
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
WMA is a lossy audio codec based on the study of psychoacoustics.

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC-LCMPEG-4 AAC
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.

Music psychology

music cognitionpsychology of musicmusic perception
Psychoacoustics includes topics and studies that are relevant to music psychology and music therapy.
Originally arising in fields of psychoacoustics and sensation, cognitive theories of how people understand music more recently encompass neuroscience, cognitive science, music theory, music therapy, computer science, psychology, philosophy, and linguistics.

Robert Taylor (computer scientist)

Robert TaylorBob TaylorRobert W. Taylor
Internet pioneers J. C. R. Licklider and Bob Taylor both completed graduate-level work in psychoacoustics, while BBN Technologies originally specialized in consulting on acoustics issues before it began building the first packet-switched computer networks.
Reflecting his background in experimental psychology and mathematics, he completed research in neuroscience, psychoacoustics and the auditory nervous system as a graduate student.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. LickliderJoseph Carl Robnett LickliderDr. J. C. R. Licklider
Internet pioneers J. C. R. Licklider and Bob Taylor both completed graduate-level work in psychoacoustics, while BBN Technologies originally specialized in consulting on acoustics issues before it began building the first packet-switched computer networks.
He received a Ph.D. in psychoacoustics from the University of Rochester in 1942.

Equivalent rectangular bandwidth

ERB-rateERB-rate scale
The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.

Absolute threshold of hearing

hearing thresholdsthreshold of hearingauditory threshold
By measuring this minimum intensity for testing tones of various frequencies, a frequency dependent absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) curve may be derived.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP2MPEG-1 Layer IIMUSICAM
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.

Precedence effect

Haas effectHaasHelmut Haas
The precedence effect or law of the first wavefront is a binaural psychoacoustical effect.

MiniDisc

MDMini DiscHi-MD
Some of these formats include Dolby Digital (AC-3), MP3, Opus, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, WMA, MPEG-1 Layer II (used for digital audio broadcasting in several countries) and ATRAC, the compression used in MiniDisc and some Walkman models.
Sony's ATRAC codec differs from uncompressed PCM in that it is a psychoacoustic lossy audio data reduction scheme and is such that the recorded signal does not require decompression on replay.

Timbre

timbraltonetimbres
In music, timbre, also known as tone color or tone quality (from psychoacoustics), is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.

Pitch (music)

pitchpitchestone
Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound.

Sound localization

binaural hearingsound localisationbinaural
Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound source.

Chalkboard scraping

Sound of fingernails scraping chalkboardfingernails on a chalkboardnails on a chalkboard
The basis of the innate reaction to the sound has been studied in the field of psychoacoustics (the branch of psychology concerned with the perception of sound and its physiological effects).

Hypersonic effect

It is a common understanding in psychoacoustics that the ear cannot respond to sounds at such high frequency via an air-conduction pathway, so one question that this research raised was: does the hypersonic effect occur via the "ordinary" route of sound travelling through the air passage in the ear, or in some other way?