Psychoanalysis

psychoanalystpsychoanalyticpsychoanalyticalpsychoanalystsFreudian psychologyFreudianFreudianismpsychoanalytic therapyanalystpsychoanalyzed
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.wikipedia
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Carl Jung

JungCarl Gustav JungC. G. Jung
Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, and by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan.
Carl Gustav Jung (, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

Karen Horney

HorneyK.HorneyKaren Danielsan
Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, and by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan.
Karen Horney ( ; 16 September 1885 – 4 December 1952) was a German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later career.

Erich Fromm

FrommErich Seligmann Frommthe German critical theorist
Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, and by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan.
He was a social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist.

Resistance (psychoanalysis)

resistanceSuperego resistanceId resistance
Resistance, in psychoanalysis, refers to oppositional behavior when an individual's unconscious defenses of the ego are threatened by an external source.

Unconscious mind

unconsciousunconsciouslythe unconscious
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
The concept was popularized by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.

Psychoanalytic literary criticism

psychoanalytic criticismpsychoanalyticpsychoanalytic critics
Psychoanalytic concepts are also widely used outside the therapeutic arena, in areas such as psychoanalytic literary criticism, as well as in the analysis of film, fairy tales and other cultural phenomena.
Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism or literary theory which, in method, concept, or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
The proportion of practitioners of Freudian psychoanalysis has declined as evidence-based medicine has increased the use of cognitive behavioral therapy.
It is different from historical approaches to psychotherapy, such as the psychoanalytic approach where the therapist looks for the unconscious meaning behind the behaviors and then formulates a diagnosis.

Neo-Freudianism

neo-FreudianNeo-Freudianspost-Freudian
Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, and by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan.
The term "neo-Freudian" is sometimes loosely (but inaccurately) used to refer to those early followers of Freud who at some point accepted the basic tenets of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis but later dissented from it.

Josef Breuer

BreuerBreuer, Josef
The discipline was established in the early 1890s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Freud's first theory to explain hysterical symptoms was presented in Studies on Hysteria (1895), co-authored with his mentor the distinguished physician Josef Breuer, which was generally seen as the birth of psychoanalysis.
Josef Breuer (15 January 1842 – 20 June 1925) was a distinguished physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, and whose work in the 1880s with his patient Bertha Pappenheim, known as Anna O., developed the talking cure (cathartic method) and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud.

Free association (psychology)

free associationfree-associativefree-association
The patient expresses his or her thoughts, including free associations, fantasies and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems.
The technique is used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud out of the hypnotic method of his mentor and colleague, Josef Breuer.

Harry Stack Sullivan

SullivanHarry S. SullivanSullivanian
Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, and by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry Stack Sullivan.
Herbert "Harry" Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York – January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was an American Neo-Freudian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who held that the personality lives in, and has his or her being in, a complex of interpersonal relations.

The Interpretation of Dreams

Interpretation of Dreamstheory of dreamsdream interpretation
Die Traumdeutung (The Interpretation of Dreams), which Freud saw as his "most significant work", appeared in November 1899.
The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung) is an 1899 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, and discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex.

Transference

transferA cognitive moduleerotic transference
The analyst then uses a variety of interpretation methods, such as dynamic interpretation (explaining how being too nice guards against guilt, e.g. – defense vs. affect); genetic interpretation (explaining how a past event is influencing the present); resistance interpretation (showing the patient how they are avoiding their problems); transference interpretation (showing the patient ways old conflicts arise in current relationships, including that with the analyst); or dream interpretation (obtaining the patient's thoughts about their dreams and connecting this with their current problems).
Transference was first described by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, who considered it an important part of psychoanalytic treatment.

Repression (psychology)

repressionrepressedpsychological repression
Repression is a key concept of psychoanalysis, where it is understood as a defence mechanism that "ensures that what is unacceptable to the conscious mind, and would if recalled arouse anxiety, is prevented from entering into it."

Psychosexual development

psychosexualinfantile sexualitypsychosexual stages
In 1905, Freud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: oral (ages 0–2), anal (2–4), phallic-oedipal (today called 1st genital ) (3–6), latency (6-puberty), and mature genital (puberty-onward).
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.

Cathexis

cathexesCathectedcatharsis
Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis.
In psychoanalysis, cathexis is defined as the process of investment of mental or emotional energy in a person, object, or idea.

Studies on Hysteria

Studies in HysteriaStudien über Hysterie
Freud's first theory to explain hysterical symptoms was presented in Studies on Hysteria (1895), co-authored with his mentor the distinguished physician Josef Breuer, which was generally seen as the birth of psychoanalysis.
Studies on Hysteria (Studien über Hysterie) is an 1895 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, and the physician Josef Breuer.

Otto Rank

RankRank, O
Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety was written in response to Otto Rank, who, in 1924, published Das Trauma der Geburt (translated into English in 1929 as The Trauma of Birth), analysing how art, myth, religion, philosophy and therapy were illuminated by separation anxiety in the "phase before the development of the Oedipus complex".
Otto Rank (né Rosenfeld; 22 April 1884 – 31 October 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher.

Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego

By 1920, Freud addressed the power of identification (with the leader and with other members) in groups as a motivation for behavior (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego).
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse) is a 1921 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis.

Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality

Three Contributions to the Theory of Sexsexualitytheory of sexuality
In 1905, Freud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: oral (ages 0–2), anal (2–4), phallic-oedipal (today called 1st genital ) (3–6), latency (6-puberty), and mature genital (puberty-onward).
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie), sometimes titled Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, is a 1905 work by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author advances his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood.

Anna Freud

AnnaA. FreudFreudian
Also in 1936, Anna Freud, Sigmund's daughter, published her seminal book, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, outlining numerous ways the mind could shut upsetting things out of consciousness.
She followed the path of her father and contributed to the field of psychoanalysis.

Robert Waelder

By 1936 the "Principle of Multiple Function" was clarified by Robert Waelder.
Robert Waelder (1900–1967) was a noted Austrian psychoanalyst and member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.

American Psychoanalytic Association

American Psychoanalytical Association
In the first decade of the 21st century, there were approximately 35 training institutes for psychoanalysis in the United States accredited by the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA), which is a component organization of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA), and there are over 3000 graduated psychoanalysts practicing in the United States.
The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) is an association of psychoanalysts in the United States.

Anna O.

Anna O
The work was based on Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheim, referred to in case studies by the pseudonym "Anna O.", treatment which Pappenheim herself had dubbed the "talking cure".
Her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis.

Psychiatry

psychiatricpsychiatristpsychiatrists
Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within psychiatry, more so in some quarters than others.
Psychoanalysis, on the other hand, concentrates its dealings on early childhood, irrational drives, the unconscious, and conflict between conscious and unconscious streams.