Psychological projection

projectionprojectprojectedprojectingprojectionsprojectsPsychologically projectsblaming othersmeaning that the ideas project the behaviors, values, and feelings that are aligned with the desires and aims of the individual's egonon-projective
Psychological projection is a defence mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.wikipedia
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Defence mechanism

defense mechanismdefense mechanismsdefence mechanisms
Psychological projection is a defence mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.
In 1936, Anna Freud enumerated the ten defence mechanisms that appear in the works of her father, Sigmund Freud: repression, regression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against one's own person, reversal into the opposite, and sublimation or displacement.

Projective identification

carried feelingsprojection
(The related defence of projective identification differs from projection in that there the other person is expected to become identified with the impulse or desire projected outside, so that the self maintains a connection with what is projected, in contrast to the total repudiation of projection proper.)
While based on Freud's concept of psychological projection, projective identification represents a step beyond.

Ludwig Feuerbach

FeuerbachLudwig Andreas FeuerbachFeuerbachian
In 1841, Ludwig Feuerbach was the first enlightenment thinker to employ this concept as the basis for a systematic critique of religion.
Thus God is nothing else than human: he is, so to speak, the outward projection of a human's inward nature.

Shadow (psychology)

shadowJungian shadowthe shadow
Carl Jung considered that the unacceptable parts of the personality represented by the Shadow archetype were particularly likely to give rise to projection, both small-scale and on a national/international basis.
According to Jung, the shadow, in being instinctive and irrational, is prone to psychological projection, in which a perceived personal inferiority is recognized as a perceived moral deficiency in someone else.

Attribution (psychology)

attribution theoryattributionattributions
Psychological projection is a defence mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.

Denial

denydenyingDARVO
Psychological projection is a defence mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.

Medical explanations of bewitchment

bewitchment
Psychological projection is one of the medical explanations of bewitchment used to explain the behavior of the afflicted children at Salem in 1692.
Demos combined the disciplines of anthropology and psychology to propose that psychological projection could explain the violent fits the girls were experiencing during the crisis at Salem.

Id, ego and super-ego

egoidsuperego
Projection may help a fragile ego reduce anxiety, but at the cost of a certain dissociation, as in dissociative identity disorder.
Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms Freud identified.

Thematic apperception test

TATThematic Apperception testsThe Thematic Apperception Test
Drawing on Gordon Allport's idea of the expression of self onto activities and objects, projective techniques have been devised to aid personality assessment, including the Rorschach ink-blots and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

False consensus effect

False-consensus effectfalse consensusFalse consensus bias
Research supports the existence of a false-consensus effect whereby humans have a broad tendency to believe that others are similar to themselves, and thus "project" their personal traits onto others.
The second influential theory is projection, the idea that people project their own attitudes and beliefs onto others.

Giambattista Vico

VicoGiovan Battista VicoGianbattista Vico
A prominent precursor in the formulation of the projection principle was Giambattista Vico.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
In 1841, Ludwig Feuerbach was the first enlightenment thinker to employ this concept as the basis for a systematic critique of religion.

Talmud

Babylonian TalmudTalmudicTalmudist
The Babylonian Talmud (500 AD) notes the human tendency toward projection and warns against it: "Do not taunt your neighbour with the blemish you yourself have."

New Testament

NewThe New TestamentNew Testaments
In the New Testament, Jesus also warned against projection: "Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when all the time there is a plank in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye."

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Projection (Projektion) was conceptualised by Sigmund Freud in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess, and further refined by Karl Abraham and Anna Freud.

Wilhelm Fliess

Projection (Projektion) was conceptualised by Sigmund Freud in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess, and further refined by Karl Abraham and Anna Freud.

Karl Abraham

Projection (Projektion) was conceptualised by Sigmund Freud in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess, and further refined by Karl Abraham and Anna Freud.

Anna Freud

AnnaA. FreudFreudian
Projection (Projektion) was conceptualised by Sigmund Freud in his letters to Wilhelm Fliess, and further refined by Karl Abraham and Anna Freud.

Splitting (psychology)

splittingpsychological splittingsplit off
What the ego repudiates is split off and placed in another.

Exaggeration

exaggeratedexaggerateexaggerations
Freud would later come to believe that projection did not take place arbitrarily, but rather seized on and exaggerated an element that already existed on a small scale in the other person.

Impulse (psychology)

impulseimpulseshuman impulses
(The related defence of projective identification differs from projection in that there the other person is expected to become identified with the impulse or desire projected outside, so that the self maintains a connection with what is projected, in contrast to the total repudiation of projection proper.)

Melanie Klein

KleinianKleinKleinians
Melanie Klein saw the projection of good parts of the self as leading potentially to over-idealisation of the object.

Idealization and devaluation

idealizationidealisationdevaluation
Melanie Klein saw the projection of good parts of the self as leading potentially to over-idealisation of the object.

Crisis

crisespolitical crisispersonal crises
Projection tends to come to the fore in normal people at times of personal or political crisis but is more commonly found in personalities functioning at a primitive level as in narcissistic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder.