A report on Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.
One of the dogs used in Pavlov's experiment with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation, preserved in the Pavlov Museum in Ryazan, Russia
False-color representations of cerebral fiber pathways affected, per Van Horn et al.
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction
Baddeley's model of working memory
The Müller–Lyer illusion. Psychologists make inferences about mental processes from shared phenomena such as optical illusions.
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 posited that humans have a hierarchy of needs, and it makes sense to fulfill the basic needs first (food, water etc.) before higher-order needs can be met.
Developmental psychologists would engage a child with a book and then make observations based on how the child interacts with the object.
An example of an item from a cognitive abilities test used in educational psychology.
Flowchart of four phases (enrollment, intervention allocation, follow-up, and data analysis) of a parallel randomized trial of two groups, modified from the CONSORT 2010 Statement
The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor and confederate. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level etc.
An EEG recording setup
Artificial neural network with two layers, an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
A rat undergoing a Morris water navigation test used in behavioral neuroscience to study the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory.
Phineas P. Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and is remembered for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior.

Scientific study of mind and behavior.

- Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind.

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Wilhelm Wundt in 1902

Wilhelm Wundt

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Wilhelm Wundt in 1902
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Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology.

A cognitive model, as illustrated by Robert Fludd (1619)

Cognition

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Cognition refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

Cognition refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

A cognitive model, as illustrated by Robert Fludd (1619)
When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking (abstract thinking).

Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, musicology, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909

Psychotherapy

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Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909
Group therapy, Ukraine

Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Psychologist

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South African psychologist Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela
The University of Pennsylvania was the first institution to offer formal education in clinical psychology in the U.S.

A psychologist is a professional who practices psychology and studies mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior.

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum

Neuroscience

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Scientific study of the nervous system and its functions.

Scientific study of the nervous system and its functions.

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum
Illustration from Gray's Anatomy (1918) of a lateral view of the human brain, featuring the hippocampus among other neuroanatomical features
The Golgi stain first allowed for the visualization of individual neurons.
Human nervous system
Photograph of a stained neuron in a chicken embryo
Proposed organization of motor-semantic neural circuits for action language comprehension. Adapted from Shebani et al. (2013)
Parasagittal MRI of the head of a patient with benign familial macrocephaly

It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia and neural circuits.

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Emotion

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Emotions are mental states brought on by neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.

Emotions are mental states brought on by neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Examples of basic emotions
The emotion wheel.
Two dimensions of emotions. Made accessible for practical use.
Two dimensions of emotion
Illustration from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)
Simplified graph of James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Timeline of some of the most prominent brain models of emotion in affective neuroscience.

Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, medicine, history, sociology of emotions, and computer science.

Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century by Robert Fludd, an English Paracelsian physician

Consciousness

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Sentience or awareness of internal and external existence.

Sentience or awareness of internal and external existence.

Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century by Robert Fludd, an English Paracelsian physician
John Locke, British Enlightenment philosopher from the 17th century
Illustration of dualism by René Descartes. Inputs are passed by the sensory organs to the pineal gland and from there to the immaterial spirit.
Thomas Nagel argues that while a human might be able to imagine what it is like to be a bat by taking "the bat's point of view", it would still be impossible "to know what it is like for a bat to be a bat." (Townsend's big-eared bat pictured).
John Searle in December 2005
The Necker cube, an ambiguous image
A Buddhist monk meditating
Neon color spreading effect. The apparent bluish tinge of the white areas inside the circle is an illusion.
Square version of the neon spread illusion

Recently, consciousness has also become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, involving fields such as psychology, linguistics, anthropology, neuropsychology and neuroscience.

A phrenological mapping of the brain. Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain

Mind

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Set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena.

Set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena.

A phrenological mapping of the brain. Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain
René Descartes' illustration of mind–body dualism.
Descartes believed inputs are passed on by the Sensory organs to the epiphysis in the brain and from there to the immaterial spirit.
Simplified diagram of Spaun, a 2.5-million-neuron computational model of the brain. (A) The corresponding physical regions and connections of the human brain. (B) The mental architecture of Spaun.
Computer simulation of the branching architecture of the dendrites of pyramidal neurons.

The term is technically used in psychology for the process of reviving in the mind percepts of objects formerly given in sense perception.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

Sociology

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Social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life.

Social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)
Auguste Comte (1798–1857)
Karl Marx (1818–1883)
Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)
Max Weber
Georg Simmel
Émile Durkheim
Bust of Ferdinand Tönnies in Husum, Germany
Anthony Giddens
The bean machine, designed by early social research methodologist Sir Francis Galton to demonstrate the normal distribution, which is important to much quantitative hypothesis testing.
A social network diagram: individuals (or 'nodes') connected by relationships
Max Horkheimer (left, front), Theodor Adorno (right, front), and Jürgen Habermas (right, back) 1965
"Rosie the Riveter" was an iconic symbol of the American homefront and a departure from gender roles due to wartime necessity.
Jürgen Habermas
Harrison White

Suicide is a case study of variations in suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, and served to distinguish sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy.

Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology

Cognitive science

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Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology
A well known example of a phrase structure tree. This is one way of representing human language that shows how different components are organized hierarchically.
The Necker cube, an example of an optical illusion
An optical illusion. The square A is exactly the same shade of gray as square B. See checker shadow illusion.
Image of the human head with the brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
An artificial neural network with two layers.

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.