Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapypsychotherapiststherapisttalk therapycounselingcounsellingtherapeuticpsychotherapies
Psychotherapy (psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.wikipedia
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Family therapy

family therapistmarriage and family therapistmarriage and family therapy
Most involve one-to-one sessions, between the client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups, including families.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

Clinical psychology

clinical psychologistclinicalclinical psychologists
The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".
Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.

John C. Norcross

JohnJohn NorcrossNorcross, J.C.
The American Psychological Association adopted a resolution on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in 2012 based on a definition developed by John C. Norcross: "Psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable".
John C. Norcross (born 1957) is an American professor, clinical psychologist, and board-certified specialist in psychotherapy, behavior change, and self-help.

Psychiatrist

psychiatristsclinical psychiatristconsultant psychiatrist
Psychiatrists are trained first as physicians, and—as such—they may prescribe prescription medication; and specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies: however, their specialty is in mental disorders or forms of mental illness.
Psychiatrists prescribe medicine, and may also use psychotherapy, although the vast majority do medical management and refer to a psychologist or other specialized therapist for weekly to bi-monthly psychotherapy.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Historically, psychotherapy has sometimes meant "interpretative" (i.e. Freudian) methods, namely psychoanalysis, in contrast with other methods to treat psychiatric disorders such as behavior modification.

Online counseling

Online counsellingcounsellorE-mail counseling
Psychotherapy may be delivered in person (one on one, or with couples, or in groups), over the phone, via telephone counseling, or via the internet.
Some clients use online counseling in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy, or nutritional counseling, and a growing number of clients are using online counseling as a replacement for office visits.

Alfred Adler

AdlerAdlerianAdler, Alfred
Many theorists, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Otto Rank, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein and Heinz Kohut, built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often developed their own systems of psychotherapy.
Alfred Adler (7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

Psychoanalysis

psychoanalystpsychoanalyticpsychoanalytical
Historically, psychotherapy has sometimes meant "interpretative" (i.e. Freudian) methods, namely psychoanalysis, in contrast with other methods to treat psychiatric disorders such as behavior modification.
In the 21st century, psychoanalytic ideas are embedded in Western culture, especially in fields such as childcare, education, literary criticism, cultural studies, mental health, and particularly psychotherapy.

Social work

social workersocial servicessocial service
Other clinical practitioners, social workers, mental health counselors, pastoral counselors, and nurses with a specialization in mental health, also often conduct psychotherapy.
Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draws from a number of areas, such as (but not limited to) psychology, sociology, politics, criminology, economics, ecology, education, health, law, philosophy, anthropology, and counseling, including psychotherapy.

Mental health professional

mental health professionalsmental health careshrink
Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, mental health nurses, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors.
Additionally, many mental health professionals may sometimes work together using a variety of treatment options such as concurrent psychiatric medication and psychotherapy and supported housing.

Medard Boss

Concerned mainly with the individual's ability to develop and preserve a sense of meaning and purpose throughout life, major contributors to the field (e.g., Irvin Yalom, Rollo May) and Europe (Viktor Frankl, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, R.D.Laing, Emmy van Deurzen) attempted to create therapies sensitive to common "life crises" springing from the essential bleakness of human self-awareness, previously accessible only through the complex writings of existential philosophers (e.g., Søren Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Gabriel Marcel, Martin Heidegger, Friedrich Nietzsche).
Medard Boss (October 4, 1903 – December 21, 1990) was a Swiss psychoanalytic psychiatrist who developed a form of psychotherapy known as Daseinsanalysis, which united the psychotherapeutic practice of psychoanalysis with the existential-phenomenological philosophy of friend and mentor Martin Heidegger.

Gestalt therapy

GestaltGestalt therapistErv and Miriam Polster
Others developed the approach, like Fritz and Laura Perls in the creation of Gestalt therapy, as well as Marshall Rosenberg, founder of Nonviolent Communication, and Eric Berne, founder of transactional analysis.
Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy which emphasizes personal responsibility, and focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.

Phobia

phobiasphobicfear
The approach became commonly used for phobias, as well as other disorders.
Social phobia and agoraphobia are often treated with some combination of counselling and medication.

Carl Rogers

Carl R. RogersRogerianRogers
A related body of thought in psychotherapy started in the 1950s with Carl Rogers.
Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956.

Classical conditioning

conditioningPavlovian conditioningPavlovian
Behavioral therapy approaches relied on principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory to bring about therapeutic change in observable symptoms.
Together with operant conditioning, classical conditioning became the foundation of behaviorism, a school of psychology which was dominant in the mid-20th century and is still an important influence on the practice of psychological therapy and the study of animal behavior.

Mental health

behavioral healthmentalmental hygiene
Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills.
Expressive therapies or creative arts therapies are a form of psychotherapy that involves the arts or art-making.

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational Emotive TherapyRational Emotive Behavioral Therapyrational-emotive therapy
During the 1950s, Albert Ellis originated rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT).
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives.

Cognitive therapy

cognitivecognitive psychotherapycognitive behavioural therapy
Independently a few years later, psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck developed a form of psychotherapy known as cognitive therapy.
Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.

Fritz Perls

FritzFrederick PerlsFrederick S. Perls
Others developed the approach, like Fritz and Laura Perls in the creation of Gestalt therapy, as well as Marshall Rosenberg, founder of Nonviolent Communication, and Eric Berne, founder of transactional analysis.
Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8, 1893 – March 14, 1970), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and psychotherapist.

Albert Ellis

EllisA. EllisDr. Albert Ellis
During the 1950s, Albert Ellis originated rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT).
He is generally considered to be one of the originators of the cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy and an early proponent of cognitive-behavioral therapies.

Dialectical behavior therapy

dialectical behavioral therapyDBTdialectical behaviour therapy
A "third wave" of cognitive and behavioral therapies developed, including acceptance and commitment therapy and dialectical behavior therapy, which expanded the concepts to other disorders and/or added novel components and mindfulness exercises.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy that began with efforts to treat borderline personality disorder (also known as Emotional Instability Disorder).

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
Cognitive and behavioral therapy approaches were increasingly combined and grouped under the umbrella term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the 1970s.
It is different from historical approaches to psychotherapy, such as the psychoanalytic approach where the therapist looks for the unconscious meaning behind the behaviors and then formulates a diagnosis.

Coherence therapy

coherence
Postmodern psychotherapies such as narrative therapy and coherence therapy do not impose definitions of mental health and illness, but rather see the goal of therapy as something constructed by the client and therapist in a social context.
Coherence therapy is a system of psychotherapy based in the theory that symptoms of mood, thought and behavior are produced coherently according to the person's current mental models of reality, most of which are implicit and unconscious.

Hypnosis

hypnotismhypnotisthypnotic
Called Mesmerism or animal magnetism, it would have a strong influence on the rise of dynamic psychology and psychiatry as well as theories about hypnosis.
Janet reconciled elements of his views with those of Bernheim and his followers, developing his own sophisticated hypnotic psychotherapy based upon the concept of psychological dissociation, which, at the turn of the century, rivalled Freud's attempt to provide a more comprehensive theory of psychotherapy.

Karen Horney

HorneyK.HorneyKaren Danielsan
Many theorists, including Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Otto Rank, Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein and Heinz Kohut, built upon Freud's fundamental ideas and often developed their own systems of psychotherapy.
It was while living in Brooklyn that Horney developed and advanced her composite theories regarding neurosis and personality, based on experiences gained from working in psychotherapy.