Ptolemy

Claudius PtolemyPtolemaicPtol.Claudius PtolemaeusPtolemy’sPtolemy of AlexandriaPtolemy's ''HarmonicsClaudii PtolemaeiClaudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy)Claudius Ptolemeus
Claudius Ptolemy (, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos ; Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. undefined AD 100 – c. 170) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer.wikipedia
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Almagest

cataloghis book on astronomyMagna Syntaxis
This attestation is quite late, however, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he ever lived anywhere other than Alexandria. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was originally entitled the Mathematical Treatise (Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, Mathēmatikē Syntaxis) and then known as the Great Treatise (Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, Hē Megálē Syntaxis). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy (c.

Geography (Ptolemy)

GeographyGeographiaPtolemy
The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was originally entitled the Mathematical Treatise (Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, Mathēmatikē Syntaxis) and then known as the Great Treatise (Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, Hē Megálē Syntaxis). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world.
Originally written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles.

Ptolemy (name)

PtolemyPtolemaeusPtolemaios II
Ptolemaeus (Πτολεμαῖος Ptolemaios) is a Greek name.
Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) (c. 100 AD – c. 170), a Greek polymath, astronomer, geographer, historian, mathematician, and astrologer

Tetrabiblos

QuadripartitumPtolemy
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more commonly known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
Tetrabiblos 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká "Effects", and in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy (c.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic and European science.
The convention received by the Middle Ages and surviving into modern usage is that of the Roman era used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius, Strabo and Ptolemy,

Astrology

astrologerastrologicalastrologers
170) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer.
The astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy lived in Alexandria.

Greco-Roman world

Greco-RomanGraeco-RomanGreco-Roman culture
The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was originally entitled the Mathematical Treatise (Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, Mathēmatikē Syntaxis) and then known as the Great Treatise (Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, Hē Megálē Syntaxis). The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world.
All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

Aristotelian physics

AristotelianphysicsAristotelian natural philosophy
The third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
Later, the belief that all spheres are concentric was forsaken in favor of Ptolemy's deferent and epicycle model.

Constellation

constellationsEuropean constellationModern constellation
Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky (only the sky Hipparchus could see).
They are given in Aratus' work Phenomena and Ptolemy's Almagest, though their origin probably predates these works by several centuries.

Physics in the medieval Islamic world

physicistphysicsconception of physics
Later Arabic astronomers, geographers and physicists referred to him by his name in بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).

Geocentric model

geocentricPtolemaicgeocentrism
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution.
The geocentric model served as the predominant description of the cosmos in many ancient civilizations, such as those of Aristotle and Ptolemy.

Science in the medieval Islamic world

sciencescientistscientists
Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic and European science.
Ancient Greek works such as Ptolemy's Almagest and Euclid's Elements were translated into Arabic.

Hipparchus

hipparchHipparchus of NiceaObservatory at Rhodes
Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena; Greek astronomers such as Hipparchus had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions.
The exact dates of his life are not known, but Ptolemy attributes astronomical observations to him in the period from 147–127, and some of these are stated as made in Rhodes; earlier observations since 162 might also have been made by him.

Heliocentrism

heliocentricheliocentric modelheliocentric theory
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution.
While a moving Earth was proposed at least from the 4th century BC in Pythagoreanism, and a fully developed heliocentric model was developed by Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, these ideas were not successful in replacing the view of a static spherical Earth, and from the 2nd century AD the predominant model, which would be inherited by medieval astronomy, was the geocentric model described in Ptolemy's Almagest.

Greeks in Egypt

GreeksGreekEgypt
170) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid .

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was almost universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution.
The Ptolemaic model of planetary motion: based on the geometrical model of Eudoxus of Cnidus, Ptolemy's Almagest, demonstrated that calculations could compute the exact positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets in the future and in the past, and showed how these computational models were derived from astronomical observations. As such they formed the model for later astronomical developments. The physical basis for Ptolemaic models invoked layers of spherical shells, though the most complex models were inconsistent with this physical explanation.

Latin translations of the 12th century

translated into LatinLatin translationLatin translations
Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
A copy of Ptolemy's Almagest was brought back to Sicily by Henry Aristippus, as a gift from the Emperor to King William I.

Star catalogue

star catalogNLTTLTT
The Almagest also contains a star catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus.
In the 2nd century, Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. 186 AD) of Roman Egypt published a star catalogue as part of his Almagest, which listed 1,022 stars visible from Alexandria.

Zij

astronomical tablezījIslamic astronomical tables
Ptolemy's Handy Tables provided the model for later astronomical tables or zījes.
The content of zījes were initially based on that of the Handy Tables (known in Arabic as al-Qānūn) by Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, the Zij-i Shah compiled in Sassanid Persia, and the Indian Siddhantas by Aryabhata and Brahmagupta.

Marinus of Tyre

Marinus
He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire.
undefined 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized, possibly Phoenician, geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy's influential Geography.

Gazetteer

1 gazetteersgeographical dictionary
He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre, and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire.
While discussing the Greek conception of the river delta in ancient Greek literature, Francis Celoria notes that both Ptolemy and Pausanias of the 2nd century AD provided gazetteer information on geographical terms.

Almanac

almanacsalmanachparapegma
In the Phaseis (Risings of the Fixed Stars), Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac, based on the appearances and disappearances of stars over the course of the solar year.
Ptolemy, the Alexandrian astronomer (2nd century) wrote a treatise, Phaseis—"phases of fixed stars and collection of weather-changes" is the translation of its full title—the core of which is a parapegma, a list of dates of seasonally regular weather changes, first appearances and last appearances of stars or constellations at sunrise or sunset, and solar events such as solstices, all organized according to the solar year.

Theodore Meliteniotes

The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid .
The second book is devoted to Ptolemy, whose calculations he explained in the manner of Theon of Alexandria.

Roman province

provinceprovincesprovincial
All male pharaohs after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were also Ptolemies.
42 AD – Mauretania Tingitana (northern Morocco); after the death of Ptolemy, the last king of Mauretania, in 40 AD, his kingdom was annexed. It was begun by Caligula and was completed by Claudius with the defeat of the rebels. In 42 AD, Claudius divided it into two provinces (imperial procuratorial province).

Clime

climesseven climesclimata
Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred to express it as climata, the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc: the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle.
Claudius Ptolemy was the first ancient scientist known to have devised the so-called system of seven climes (Almagest 2.12) which, due to his authority, became one of the canonical elements of late antique, medieval European and Arab geography.