Ptosis (eyelid)

ptosisblepharoptosisdrooping eyeliddrooping eyelidsdrooping of the eyelidbilateral ptosisdroopy eyelidsdrooping of both eyelidsdrooping of the eyelidsdrooping of upper and lower eyelids
Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.wikipedia
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Myasthenia gravis

myastheniamyastenia gravismyasthenic crisis
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Myogenic ptosis which includes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, ocular myopathy, simple congenital ptosis, blepharophimosis syndrome
It can result in double vision, drooping eyelids, trouble talking, and trouble walking.

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

muscular dystrophy, oculopharyngealoculopharyngeal
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Myogenic ptosis which includes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, ocular myopathy, simple congenital ptosis, blepharophimosis syndrome
Ptosis

Levator palpebrae superioris muscle

levator palpebrae superiorislevator palpebraelevator
Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and sympathetic nerves for superior tarsal muscle). Ptosis can be caused by the aponeurosis of the levator muscle, nerve abnormalities, trauma, inflammation or lesions of the lid or orbit.
Damage to this muscle or its innervation can cause ptosis, which is drooping of the eyelid.

Amblyopia

lazy eyeamblyopicamblyopia ex anopisa
This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye," but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia.
Sometimes, drooping of the eyelid (ptosis) or some other problem causes the upper eyelid to physically occlude a child's vision, which may cause amblyopia quickly.

Pancoast tumor

pancoast's syndromePancoast Syndromepulmonary sulcus tumor
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.
Aside from cancer general symptoms such as malaise, fever, weight loss and fatigue, Pancoast tumor can include a complete Horner's syndrome in severe cases: miosis (constriction of the pupils), anhidrosis (lack of sweating), ptosis (drooping of the eyelid), and enophthalmos (sunken eyeball).

Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebra
Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
Ptosis (drooping eyelid) is when the upper eyelid droops or sags due to weakness or paralysis of the levator muscle (responsible for raising the eyelid), or due to damage to nerves controlling the muscle. It can be a manifestation of the normal aging process, a congenital condition, or due to an injury or disease. Risk factors related to ptosis include diabetes, stroke, Horner syndrome, Bell's Palsy (compression/damage to Facial nerve), myasthenia gravis, brain tumor or other cancers that can affect nerve or muscle function.

Horner's syndrome

horner syndromeHorner’s syndromeBernard syndrome
Congenital neurogenic ptosis is believed to be caused by the Horner syndrome. When caused by Horner's syndrome, ptosis is usually accompanied by miosis and anhidrosis. Neurogenic ptosis which includes oculomotor nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, Marcus Gunn jaw winking syndrome, third cranial nerve misdirection.
It is characterized by miosis (a constricted pupil), partial ptosis (a weak, droopy eyelid), apparent anhydrosis (decreased sweating), with apparent enophthalmos (inset eyeball).

Black mamba

black mambaseponymous snake
Exposure to the toxins in some snake venoms, such as that of the black mamba, may also cause this effect.
Early neurological symptoms that indicate a severe course include metallic taste, ptosis and gradual bulbar palsy.

Miosis

mioticconstricted pupilspupil constriction
When caused by Horner's syndrome, ptosis is usually accompanied by miosis and anhidrosis.
Cluster Headaches with ptosis

Superior tarsal muscle

superior tarsalMüller muscleMüller's muscle
Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and sympathetic nerves for superior tarsal muscle).
Damage to some elements of the sympathetic nervous system can inhibit this muscle, causing a drooping eyelid (partial ptosis).

Blepharophimosis

blepharophimosis syndromenarrowing of the eyes
Myogenic ptosis which includes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, ocular myopathy, simple congenital ptosis, blepharophimosis syndrome
It is also part of a syndrome blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome, also called blepharophimosis syndrome, which is a condition where the patient has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size, vertically and horizontally.

Oculomotor nerve palsy

oculomotor palsyimpairment of cranial nerve IIIocculomotor nerve palsy
Neurogenic ptosis which includes oculomotor nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, Marcus Gunn jaw winking syndrome, third cranial nerve misdirection.
The affected individual will also have a ptosis, or drooping of the eyelid, and mydriasis (pupil dilation).

Bungarus

kraitkraitssmall but deadly Asian snake
Neurotoxic ptosis which is a classic symptom of envenomation by elapid snakes such as cobras, kraits, mambas and taipans. Bilateral ptosis is usually accompanied by diplopia, dysphagia and/or progressive muscular paralysis. Regardless, neurotoxic ptosis is a precursor to respiratory failure and eventual suffocation caused by complete paralysis of the thoracic diaphragm. It is therefore a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required. Similarly, ptosis may occur in victims of Botulism (caused by Botulinum toxin) and this is also regarded as a life-threatening symptom
Typically, victims start to complain of severe abdominal cramps accompanied by progressive muscular paralysis, frequently starting with ptosis.

Botulism

avian botulismbotulinusbotulinum antitoxin
Neurotoxic ptosis which is a classic symptom of envenomation by elapid snakes such as cobras, kraits, mambas and taipans. Bilateral ptosis is usually accompanied by diplopia, dysphagia and/or progressive muscular paralysis. Regardless, neurotoxic ptosis is a precursor to respiratory failure and eventual suffocation caused by complete paralysis of the thoracic diaphragm. It is therefore a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required. Similarly, ptosis may occur in victims of Botulism (caused by Botulinum toxin) and this is also regarded as a life-threatening symptom
Double vision, drooping of both eyelids, loss of facial expression and swallowing problems may therefore occur.

Marcus Gunn phenomenon

Marcus Gunn Jaw-winking Syndrome
Neurogenic ptosis which includes oculomotor nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, Marcus Gunn jaw winking syndrome, third cranial nerve misdirection.
First described by the ophthalmologist Marcus Gunn in 1883, this condition presents in approximately 5% of neonates with congenital ptosis.

Human eye

eyeeyeseyeball
Characteristic to ptosis caused by this condition is the fact that the protective up rolling of the eyeball when the eyelids are closed is very poor.
These changes contribute to the etiology of several eyelid disorders such as ectropion, entropion, dermatochalasis, and ptosis.

Ptosis crutches

Non-surgical modalities like the use of "crutch" glasses or Ptosis crutches or special scleral contact lenses to support the eyelid may also be used.
Ptosis crutches (also known as eye crutches) are a non-surgical solution to Ptosis, also known as drooping eyelid syndrome.

Astigmatism

against the rule astigmatismastigmaticastigmatic myopic
If severe enough and left untreated, the drooping eyelid can cause other conditions, such as amblyopia or astigmatism.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The term is from Greek πτῶσις "a fall, falling."

Oculomotor nerve

oculomotorIIIcranial nerve III
Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and sympathetic nerves for superior tarsal muscle).

Nerve

nervesinnervationinnervated
Ptosis may be caused by damage to the muscle which raises the eyelid, damage to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion or damage to the nerve (3rd cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve)) which controls this muscle.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
Ptosis can be caused by the aponeurosis of the levator muscle, nerve abnormalities, trauma, inflammation or lesions of the lid or orbit.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Ptosis can be caused by the aponeurosis of the levator muscle, nerve abnormalities, trauma, inflammation or lesions of the lid or orbit.